Quantum Computing

Quantum Computing merges two great scientific revolutions of the 20th century: computer science and quantum physics. Quantum physics is the theoretical basis of the transistor, the laser, and other technologies which enabled the computing revolution. But on the algorithmic level, today's computing machinery still operates on ""classical"" Boolean logic. Quantum Computing is the design of hardware and software that replaces Boolean logic by quantum law at the algorithmic level. For certain computations such as optimization, sampling, search or quantum simulation this promises dramatic speedups. We are particularly interested in applying quantum computing to artificial intelligence and machine learning. This is because many tasks in these areas rely on solving hard optimization problems or performing efficient sampling.

Recent Publications

Preview abstract Measurement is one of the essential components of quantum algorithms, and for superconducting qubits it is often the most error prone. Here, we demonstrate a model-based readout optimization achieving low measurement errors while avoiding detrimental side-effects. For simultaneous and mid-circuit measurements across 17 qubits we observe 1.5% error per qubit with a duration of 500 ns end-to-end and minimal excess reset error from residual resonator photons. We also suppress measurement-induced state transitions and achieve a qubit leakage rate limited by natural heating.This technique can scale to hundreds of qubits, and be used to enhance performance of error-correcting codes as well as near-term applications View details
Optimizing quantum gates towards the scale of logical qubits
Alexandre Bourassa
Andrew Dunsworth
Will Livingston
Vlad Sivak
Trond Andersen
Yaxing Zhang
Desmond Chik
Jimmy Chen
Charles Neill
Alejo Grajales Dau
Anthony Megrant
Alexander Korotkov
Vadim Smelyanskiy
Yu Chen
Nature Communications, 15(2024), pp. 2442
Preview abstract A foundational assumption of quantum error correction theory is that quantum gates can be scaled to large processors without exceeding the error-threshold for fault tolerance. Two major challenges that could become fundamental roadblocks are manufacturing high-performance quantum hardware and engineering a control system that can reach its performance limits. The control challenge of scaling quantum gates from small to large processors without degrading performance often maps to non-convex, high-constraint, and time-dynamic control optimization over an exponentially expanding configuration space. Here we report on a control optimization strategy that can scalably overcome the complexity of such problems. We demonstrate it by choreographing the frequency trajectories of 68 frequency-tunable superconducting qubits to execute single- and two-qubit gates while mitigating computational errors. When combined with a comprehensive model of physical errors across our processor, the strategy suppresses physical error rates by ~3.7× compared with the case of no optimization. Furthermore, it is projected to achieve a similar performance advantage on a distance-23 surface code logical qubit with 1057 physical qubits. Our control optimization strategy solves a generic scaling challenge in a way that can be adapted to a variety of quantum operations, algorithms, and computing architectures. View details
Drug Design on Quantum Computers
Raffaele Santagati
Alán Aspuru-Guzik
Matthias Degroote
Leticia Gonzalez
Elica Kyoseva
Nikolaj Moll
Markus Oppel
Robert Parrish
Michael Streif
Christofer Tautermann
Horst Weiss
Nathan Wiebe
Clemens Utschig-Utschig
Nature Physics(2024)
Preview abstract The promised industrial applications of quantum computers often rest on their anticipated ability to perform accurate, efficient quantum chemical calculations. Computational drug discovery relies on accurate predictions of how candidate drugs interact with their targets in a cellular environment involving several thousands of atoms at finite temperatures. Although quantum computers are still far from being used as daily tools in the pharmaceutical industry, here we explore the challenges and opportunities of applying quantum computers to drug design. We discuss where these could transform industrial research and identify the substantial further developments needed to reach this goal. View details
Analyzing Prospects for Quantum Advantage in Topological Data Analysis
Dominic W. Berry
Yuan Su
Casper Gyurik
Robbie King
Joao Basso
Abhishek Rajput
Nathan Wiebe
Vedran Djunko
PRX Quantum, 5(2024), pp. 010319
Preview abstract Lloyd et al. were first to demonstrate the promise of quantum algorithms for computing Betti numbers in persistent homology (a way of characterizing topological features of data sets). Here, we propose, analyze, and optimize an improved quantum algorithm for topological data analysis (TDA) with reduced scaling, including a method for preparing Dicke states based on inequality testing, a more efficient amplitude estimation algorithm using Kaiser windows, and an optimal implementation of eigenvalue projectors based on Chebyshev polynomials. We compile our approach to a fault-tolerant gate set and estimate constant factors in the Toffoli complexity. Our analysis reveals that super-quadratic quantum speedups are only possible for this problem when targeting a multiplicative error approximation and the Betti number grows asymptotically. Further, we propose a dequantization of the quantum TDA algorithm that shows that having exponentially large dimension and Betti number are necessary, but insufficient conditions, for super-polynomial advantage. We then introduce and analyze specific problem examples for which super-polynomial advantages may be achieved, and argue that quantum circuits with tens of billions of Toffoli gates can solve some seemingly classically intractable instances. View details
Quantum Computation of Stopping power for Inertial Fusion Target Design
Dominic Berry
Alina Kononov
Alec White
Joonho Lee
Andrew Baczewski
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 121(2024), e2317772121
Preview abstract Stopping power is the rate at which a material absorbs the kinetic energy of a charged particle passing through it - one of many properties needed over a wide range of thermodynamic conditions in modeling inertial fusion implosions. First-principles stopping calculations are classically challenging because they involve the dynamics of large electronic systems far from equilibrium, with accuracies that are particularly difficult to constrain and assess in the warm-dense conditions preceding ignition. Here, we describe a protocol for using a fault-tolerant quantum computer to calculate stopping power from a first-quantized representation of the electrons and projectile. Our approach builds upon the electronic structure block encodings of Su et al. [PRX Quantum 2, 040332 2021], adapting and optimizing those algorithms to estimate observables of interest from the non-Born-Oppenheimer dynamics of multiple particle species at finite temperature. We also work out the constant factors associated with a novel implementation of a high order Trotter approach to simulating a grid representation of these systems. Ultimately, we report logical qubit requirements and leading-order Toffoli costs for computing the stopping power of various projectile/target combinations relevant to interpreting and designing inertial fusion experiments. We estimate that scientifically interesting and classically intractable stopping power calculations can be quantum simulated with roughly the same number of logical qubits and about one hundred times more Toffoli gates than is required for state-of-the-art quantum simulations of industrially relevant molecules such as FeMoCo or P450. View details
Dynamics of magnetization at infinite temperature in a Heisenberg spin chain
Trond Andersen
Rhine Samajdar
Andre Petukhov
Jesse Hoke
Dmitry Abanin
ILYA Drozdov
Xiao Mi
Alexis Morvan
Charles Neill
Rajeev Acharya
Richard Ross Allen
Kyle Anderson
Markus Ansmann
Frank Arute
Kunal Arya
Juan Atalaya
Gina Bortoli
Alexandre Bourassa
Leon Brill
Michael Broughton
Bob Buckley
Tim Burger
Nicholas Bushnell
Juan Campero
Hung-Shen Chang
Jimmy Chen
Benjamin Chiaro
Desmond Chik
Josh Cogan
Roberto Collins
Paul Conner
William Courtney
Alex Crook
Ben Curtin
Agustin Di Paolo
Andrew Dunsworth
Clint Earle
Lara Faoro
Edward Farhi
Reza Fatemi
Vinicius Ferreira
Ebrahim Forati
Austin Fowler
Brooks Foxen
Gonzalo Garcia
Élie Genois
William Giang
Dar Gilboa
Raja Gosula
Alejo Grajales Dau
Steve Habegger
Michael Hamilton
Monica Hansen
Sean Harrington
Paula Heu
Gordon Hill
Trent Huang
Ashley Huff
Bill Huggins
Sergei Isakov
Justin Iveland
Zhang Jiang
Cody Jones
Pavol Juhas
Mostafa Khezri
Marika Kieferova
Alexei Kitaev
Andrey Klots
Alexander Korotkov
Fedor Kostritsa
John Mark Kreikebaum
Dave Landhuis
Pavel Laptev
Kim Ming Lau
Lily Laws
Joonho Lee
Kenny Lee
Yuri Lensky
Alexander Lill
Wayne Liu
Salvatore Mandra
Orion Martin
Steven Martin
Seneca Meeks
Amanda Mieszala
Shirin Montazeri
Ramis Movassagh
Wojtek Mruczkiewicz
Ani Nersisyan
Michael Newman
JiunHow Ng
Murray Ich Nguyen
Tom O'Brien
Seun Omonije
Alex Opremcak
Rebecca Potter
Leonid Pryadko
David Rhodes
Charles Rocque
Negar Saei
Kannan Sankaragomathi
Henry Schurkus
Christopher Schuster
Mike Shearn
Aaron Shorter
Noah Shutty
Vladimir Shvarts
Vlad Sivak
Jindra Skruzny
Clarke Smith
Rolando Somma
George Sterling
Doug Strain
Marco Szalay
Doug Thor
Alfredo Torres
Guifre Vidal
Benjamin Villalonga
Cheng Xing
Jamie Yao
Ping Yeh
Juhwan Yoo
Grayson Young
Yaxing Zhang
Ningfeng Zhu
Jeremy Hilton
Anthony Megrant
Yu Chen
Vadim Smelyanskiy
Vedika Khemani
Sarang Gopalakrishnan
Tomaž Prosen
Science, 384(2024), pp. 48-53
Preview abstract Understanding universal aspects of quantum dynamics is an unresolved problem in statistical mechanics. In particular, the spin dynamics of the one-dimensional Heisenberg model were conjectured as to belong to the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) universality class based on the scaling of the infinite-temperature spin-spin correlation function. In a chain of 46 superconducting qubits, we studied the probability distribution of the magnetization transferred across the chain’s center, P(M). The first two moments of P(M) show superdiffusive behavior, a hallmark of KPZ universality. However, the third and fourth moments ruled out the KPZ conjecture and allow for evaluating other theories. Our results highlight the importance of studying higher moments in determining dynamic universality classes and provide insights into universal behavior in quantum systems. View details

Some of our teams