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General Science

We aim to transform scientific research itself. Many scientific endeavors can benefit from large scale experimentation, data gathering, and machine learning (including deep learning). We aim to accelerate scientific research by applying Google’s computational power and techniques in areas such as drug discovery, biological pathway modeling, microscopy, medical diagnostics, material science, and agriculture. We collaborate closely with world-class research partners to help solve important problems with large scientific or humanitarian benefit.

Recent Publications

Preview abstract This is an invited OFC 2024 conference workshop talk regarding a new type of lower-power datacenter optics design choice: linear pluggable optics. In this talk I will discuss the fundamental performance constraints facing linear pluggable optics and their implications on DCN and ML use cases View details
Stable quantum-correlated many-body states through engineered dissipation
Xiao Mi
Alexios Michailidis
Sara Shabani
Jerome Lloyd
Rajeev Acharya
Igor Aleiner
Trond Andersen
Markus Ansmann
Frank Arute
Kunal Arya
Juan Atalaya
Gina Bortoli
Alexandre Bourassa
Leon Brill
Michael Broughton
Bob Buckley
Tim Burger
Nicholas Bushnell
Jimmy Chen
Benjamin Chiaro
Desmond Chik
Charina Chou
Josh Cogan
Roberto Collins
Paul Conner
William Courtney
Alex Crook
Ben Curtin
Alejo Grajales Dau
Dripto Debroy
Agustin Di Paolo
ILYA Drozdov
Andrew Dunsworth
Lara Faoro
Edward Farhi
Reza Fatemi
Vinicius Ferreira
Ebrahim Forati
Austin Fowler
Brooks Foxen
Élie Genois
William Giang
Dar Gilboa
Raja Gosula
Steve Habegger
Michael Hamilton
Monica Hansen
Sean Harrington
Paula Heu
Trent Huang
Ashley Huff
Bill Huggins
Sergei Isakov
Justin Iveland
Zhang Jiang
Cody Jones
Pavol Juhas
Kostyantyn Kechedzhi
Mostafa Khezri
Marika Kieferova
Alexei Kitaev
Andrey Klots
Alexander Korotkov
Fedor Kostritsa
John Mark Kreikebaum
Dave Landhuis
Pavel Laptev
Kim Ming Lau
Lily Laws
Joonho Lee
Kenny Lee
Yuri Lensky
Alexander Lill
Wayne Liu
Orion Martin
Amanda Mieszala
Shirin Montazeri
Alexis Morvan
Ramis Movassagh
Wojtek Mruczkiewicz
Charles Neill
Ani Nersisyan
Michael Newman
JiunHow Ng
Murray Ich Nguyen
Tom O'Brien
Alex Opremcak
Andre Petukhov
Rebecca Potter
Leonid Pryadko
Charles Rocque
Negar Saei
Kannan Sankaragomathi
Henry Schurkus
Christopher Schuster
Mike Shearn
Aaron Shorter
Noah Shutty
Vladimir Shvarts
Jindra Skruzny
Clarke Smith
Rolando Somma
George Sterling
Doug Strain
Marco Szalay
Alfredo Torres
Guifre Vidal
Benjamin Villalonga
Cheng Xing
Jamie Yao
Ping Yeh
Juhwan Yoo
Grayson Young
Yaxing Zhang
Ningfeng Zhu
Jeremy Hilton
Anthony Megrant
Yu Chen
Vadim Smelyanskiy
Dmitry Abanin
Science, vol. 383 (2024), pp. 1332-1337
Preview abstract Engineered dissipative reservoirs have the potential to steer many-body quantum systems toward correlated steady states useful for quantum simulation of high-temperature superconductivity or quantum magnetism. Using up to 49 superconducting qubits, we prepared low-energy states of the transverse-field Ising model through coupling to dissipative auxiliary qubits. In one dimension, we observed long-range quantum correlations and a ground-state fidelity of 0.86 for 18 qubits at the critical point. In two dimensions, we found mutual information that extends beyond nearest neighbors. Lastly, by coupling the system to auxiliaries emulating reservoirs with different chemical potentials, we explored transport in the quantum Heisenberg model. Our results establish engineered dissipation as a scalable alternative to unitary evolution for preparing entangled many-body states on noisy quantum processors. View details
Preview abstract Floods are one of the most common natural disasters, with a disproportionate impact in developing countries that often lack dense streamflow gauge networks. Accurate and timely warnings are critical for mitigating flood risks, but hydrological simulation models typically must be calibrated to long data records in each watershed. Here we show that AI-based forecasting achieves reliability in predicting extreme riverine events in ungauged watersheds at up to a 5-day lead time that is similar to or better than the reliability of nowcasts (0-day lead time) from a current state of the art global modeling system (the Copernicus Emergency Management Service Global Flood Awareness System). Additionally, we achieve accuracies over 5-year return period events that are similar to or better than current accuracies over 1-year return period events. This means that AI can provide flood warnings earlier and over larger and more impactful events in ungauged basins. The model developed in this paper was incorporated into an operational early warning system that produces publicly available (free and open) forecasts in real time in over 80 countries. This work highlights a need for increasing the availability of hydrological data to continue to improve global access to reliable flood warnings. View details
A scalable system to measure contrail formation on a per-flight basis
Erica Brand
Sebastian Eastham
Carl Elkin
Thomas Dean
Zebediah Engberg
Ulrike Hager
Joe Ng
Dinesh Sanekommu
Tharun Sankar
Marc Shapiro
Environmental Research Communications (2024)
Preview abstract In this work we describe a scalable, automated system to determine from satellite data whether a given flight has made a persistent contrail. The system works by comparing flight segments to contrails detected by a computer vision algorithm running on images from the GOES-16 Advanced Baseline Imager. We develop a `flight matching' algorithm and use it to label each flight segment as a `match' or `non-match'. We perform this analysis on 1.6 million flight segments and compare these labels to existing contrail prediction methods based on weather forecast data. The result is an analysis of which flights make persistent contrails several orders of magnitude larger than any previous work. We find that current contrail prediction models fail to correctly predict whether we will match a contrail in many cases. View details
Dynamics of magnetization at infinite temperature in a Heisenberg spin chain
Trond Andersen
Rhine Samajdar
Andre Petukhov
Jesse Hoke
Dmitry Abanin
ILYA Drozdov
Xiao Mi
Alexis Morvan
Charles Neill
Rajeev Acharya
Richard Ross Allen
Kyle Anderson
Markus Ansmann
Frank Arute
Kunal Arya
Juan Atalaya
Gina Bortoli
Alexandre Bourassa
Leon Brill
Michael Broughton
Bob Buckley
Tim Burger
Nicholas Bushnell
Juan Campero
Hung-Shen Chang
Jimmy Chen
Benjamin Chiaro
Desmond Chik
Josh Cogan
Roberto Collins
Paul Conner
William Courtney
Alex Crook
Ben Curtin
Agustin Di Paolo
Andrew Dunsworth
Clint Earle
Lara Faoro
Edward Farhi
Reza Fatemi
Vinicius Ferreira
Ebrahim Forati
Austin Fowler
Brooks Foxen
Gonzalo Garcia
Élie Genois
William Giang
Dar Gilboa
Raja Gosula
Alejo Grajales Dau
Steve Habegger
Michael Hamilton
Monica Hansen
Sean Harrington
Paula Heu
Gordon Hill
Trent Huang
Ashley Huff
Bill Huggins
Sergei Isakov
Justin Iveland
Zhang Jiang
Cody Jones
Pavol Juhas
Mostafa Khezri
Marika Kieferova
Alexei Kitaev
Andrey Klots
Alexander Korotkov
Fedor Kostritsa
John Mark Kreikebaum
Dave Landhuis
Pavel Laptev
Kim Ming Lau
Lily Laws
Joonho Lee
Kenny Lee
Yuri Lensky
Alexander Lill
Wayne Liu
Salvatore Mandra
Orion Martin
Steven Martin
Seneca Meeks
Amanda Mieszala
Shirin Montazeri
Ramis Movassagh
Wojtek Mruczkiewicz
Ani Nersisyan
Michael Newman
JiunHow Ng
Murray Ich Nguyen
Tom O'Brien
Seun Omonije
Alex Opremcak
Rebecca Potter
Leonid Pryadko
David Rhodes
Charles Rocque
Negar Saei
Kannan Sankaragomathi
Henry Schurkus
Christopher Schuster
Mike Shearn
Aaron Shorter
Noah Shutty
Vladimir Shvarts
Vlad Sivak
Jindra Skruzny
Clarke Smith
Rolando Somma
George Sterling
Doug Strain
Marco Szalay
Doug Thor
Alfredo Torres
Guifre Vidal
Benjamin Villalonga
Cheng Xing
Jamie Yao
Ping Yeh
Juhwan Yoo
Grayson Young
Yaxing Zhang
Ningfeng Zhu
Jeremy Hilton
Anthony Megrant
Yu Chen
Vadim Smelyanskiy
Vedika Khemani
Sarang Gopalakrishnan
Tomaž Prosen
Science, vol. 384 (2024), pp. 48-53
Preview abstract Understanding universal aspects of quantum dynamics is an unresolved problem in statistical mechanics. In particular, the spin dynamics of the one-dimensional Heisenberg model were conjectured as to belong to the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) universality class based on the scaling of the infinite-temperature spin-spin correlation function. In a chain of 46 superconducting qubits, we studied the probability distribution of the magnetization transferred across the chain’s center, P(M). The first two moments of P(M) show superdiffusive behavior, a hallmark of KPZ universality. However, the third and fourth moments ruled out the KPZ conjecture and allow for evaluating other theories. Our results highlight the importance of studying higher moments in determining dynamic universality classes and provide insights into universal behavior in quantum systems. View details
Preview abstract Probabilistic forecasting is crucial to decision-making under uncertainty about future weather. The dominant approach is to use an ensemble of forecasts to represent and quantify uncertainty in operational numerical weather prediction. However, generating ensembles is computationally costly. In this paper, we propose to generate ensemble forecasts at scale by leveraging recent advances in generative artificial intelligence. Our approach learns a data-driven probabilistic diffusion model from the 5-member ensemble GEFS reforecast dataset. The model can then be sampled efficiently to produce realistic weather forecasts, conditioned on a few members of the operational GEFS forecasting system. The generated ensembles have similar predictive skill as the full GEFS 31-member ensemble, evaluated against ERA5 reanalysis, and emulate well the statistics of large physics-based ensembles. We also apply the same methodology to developing a diffusion model for generative post-processing: the model directly learns to correct biases present in the emulated forecasting system by leveraging reanalysis data as labels during training. Ensembles from this generative post-processing model show greater reliability and accuracy, particularly in extreme event classification. In general, they are more reliable and forecast the probability of extreme weather more accurately than the GEFS operational ensemble. Our models achieve these results at less than 1/10th of the computational cost incurred by the operational GEFS system. View details