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Our teams aspire to make discoveries that impact everyone, and core to our approach is sharing our research and tools to fuel progress in the field.

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Publications

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1 - 15 of 830 publications
    Generative AI in Creative Practice: ML-Artist Folk Theories of T2I Use, Harm, and Harm-Reduction
    Shalaleh Rismani
    Proceedings of the CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '24), Association for Computing Machinery (2024), pp. 1-17 (to appear)
    Preview abstract Understanding how communities experience algorithms is necessary to mitigate potential harmful impacts. This paper presents folk theories of text-to-image (T2I) models to enrich understanding of how artist communities experience creative machine learning (ML) systems. This research draws on data collected from a workshop with 15 artists from 10 countries who incorporate T2I models in their creative practice. Through reflexive thematic analysis of workshop data, we highlight theorization of T2I use, harm, and harm-reduction. Folk theories of use envision T2I models as an artistic medium, a mundane tool, and locate true creativity as rising above model affordances. Theories of harm articulate T2I models as harmed by engineering efforts to eliminate glitches and product policy efforts to limit functionality. Theories of harm-reduction orient towards protecting T2I models for creative practice through transparency and distributed governance. We examine how these theories relate, and conclude by discussing how folk theorization informs responsible AI efforts. View details
    Solidarity not Charity! Empowering Local Communities for Disaster Relief during COVID-19 through Grassroots Support
    Jeongwon Jo
    Oluwafunke Alliyu
    John M. Carroll
    Computer Supported Cooperative Work (2024) (2024)
    Preview abstract The COVID-19 pandemic brought wide-ranging, unanticipated societal changes as communities rushed to slow the spread of the novel coronavirus. In response, mutual aid groups bloomed online across the United States to fill in the gaps in social services and help local communities cope with infrastructural breakdowns. Unlike many previous disasters, the long-haul nature of COVID-19 necessitates sustained disaster relief efforts. In this paper, we conducted an interview study with online mutual aid group administrators to understand how groups facilitated disaster relief, and how disaster relief initiatives developed and maintained over the course of the first year of COVID-19. Our findings suggest that the groups were crucial sources of community-based support for immediate needs, innovated long-term solutions for chronic community issues and grew into a vehicle for justice-centered work. Our insights shed light on the strength of mutual aid as a community capacity that can support communities to collectively be more prepared for future long-haul disasters than they were with COVID-19. View details
    Human I/O: Towards Comprehensive Detection of Situational Impairments in Everyday Activities
    Xingyu Bruce Liu
    Jiahao Nick Li
    David Kim
    Xiang 'Anthony' Chen
    Ruofei Du
    Proceedings of the 2024 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM, pp. 18 (to appear)
    Preview abstract Situationally Induced Impairments and Disabilities (SIIDs) can significantly hinder user experience in everyday activities. Despite their prevalence, existing adaptive systems predominantly cater to specific tasks or environments and fail to accommodate the diverse and dynamic nature of SIIDs. We introduce Human I/O, a real-time system that detects SIIDs by gauging the availability of human input/output channels. Leveraging egocentric vision, multimodal sensing and reasoning with large language models, Human I/O achieves good performance in availability prediction across 60 in-the-wild egocentric videos in 32 different scenarios. Further, while the core focus of our work is on the detection of SIIDs rather than the creation of adaptive user interfaces, we showcase the utility of our prototype via a user study with 10 participants. Findings suggest that Human I/O significantly reduces effort and improves user experience in the presence of SIIDs, paving the way for more adaptive and accessible interactive systems in the future. View details
    Generative Ghosts: Anticipating Benefits and Risks of AI Afterlives
    Meredith Ringel Morris
    Jed R. Brubaker
    arXiv (2024)
    Preview abstract As AI systems quickly improve in both breadth and depth of performance, they lend themselves to creating increasingly powerful and realistic agents, including the possibility of agents modeled on specific people. We anticipate that within our lifetimes it may become common practice for people to create a custom AI agent to interact with loved ones and/or the broader world after death. We call these generative ghosts, since such agents will be capable of generating novel content rather than merely parroting content produced by their creator while living. In this paper, we first discuss the design space of potential implementations of generative ghosts. We then discuss the practical and ethical implications of generative ghosts, including potential positive and negative impacts on individuals and society. Based on these considerations, we lay out a research agenda for the AI and HCI research communities to empower people to create and interact with AI afterlives in a safe and beneficial manner. View details
    ScreenAI: A Vision-Language Model for UI and Infographics Understanding
    Gilles Baechler
    Srinivas Sunkara
    Maria Wang
    Hassan Mansoor
    Vincent Etter
    Jason Lin
    (2024)
    Preview abstract Screen user interfaces (UIs) and infographics, sharing similar visual language and design principles, play important roles in human communication and human-machine interaction. We introduce ScreenAI, a vision-language model that specializes in UI and infographics understanding. Our model improves upon the PaLI architecture with the flexible patching strategy of pix2struct and is trained on a unique mixture of datasets. At the heart of this mixture is a novel screen annotation task in which the model has to identify the type and location of UI elements. We use these text annotations to describe screens to Large Language Models and automatically generate question-answering (QA), UI navigation, and summarization training datasets at scale. We run ablation studies to demonstrate the impact of these design choices. At only 5B parameters, ScreenAI achieves new state-of-the-artresults on UI- and infographics-based tasks (Multi-page DocVQA, WebSRC, MoTIF and Widget Captioning), and new best-in-class performance on others (Chart QA, DocVQA, and InfographicVQA) compared to models of similar size. Finally, we release three new datasets: one focused on the screen annotation task and two others focused on question answering. View details
    Creative ML Assemblages: The Interactive Politics of People, Processes, and roducts
    Ramya Malur Srinivasan
    Katharina Burgdorf
    Jennifer Lena
    ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing (2024) (to appear)
    Preview abstract Creative ML tools are collaborative systems that afford artistic creativity through their myriad interactive relationships. We propose using ``assemblage thinking" to support analyses of creative ML by approaching it as a system in which the elements of people, organizations, culture, practices, and technology constantly influence each other. We model these interactions as ``coordinating elements" that give rise to the social and political characteristics of a particular creative ML context, and call attention to three dynamic elements of creative ML whose interactions provide unique context for the social impact a particular system as: people, creative processes, and products. As creative assemblages are highly contextual, we present these as analytical concepts that computing researchers can adapt to better understand the functioning of a particular system or phenomena and identify intervention points to foster desired change. This paper contributes to theorizing interactions with AI in the context of art, and how these interactions shape the production of algorithmic art. View details
    From Provenance to Aberrations: Image Creator and Screen Reader User Perspectives on Alt Text for AI-Generated Images
    Maitraye Das
    Alexander J. Fiannaca
    Meredith Ringel Morris
    CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (2024)
    Preview abstract AI-generated images are proliferating as a new visual medium. However, state-of-the-art image generation models do not output alternative (alt) text with their images, rendering them largely inaccessible to screen reader users (SRUs). Moreover, less is known about what information would be most desirable to SRUs in this new medium. To address this, we invited AI image creators and SRUs to evaluate alt text prepared from various sources and write their own alt text for AI images. Our mixed-methods analysis makes three contributions. First, we highlight creators’ perspectives on alt text, as creators are well-positioned to write descriptions of their images. Second, we illustrate SRUs’ alt text needs particular to the emerging medium of AI images. Finally, we discuss the promises and pitfalls of utilizing text prompts written as input for AI models in alt text generation, and areas where broader digital accessibility guidelines could expand to account for AI images. View details
    UI Mobility Control in XR: Switching UI Positionings between Static, Dynamic, and Self Entities
    Siyou Pei
    David Kim
    Yang Zhang
    Ruofei Du
    Proceedings of the 2024 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM, pp. 12 (to appear)
    Preview abstract Extended reality (XR) has the potential for seamless user interface (UI) transitions across people, objects, and environments. However, the design space, applications, and common practices of 3D UI transitions remain underexplored. To address this gap, we conducted a need-finding study with 11 participants, identifying and distilling a taxonomy based on three types of UI placements --- affixed to static, dynamic, or self entities. We further surveyed 113 commercial applications to understand the common practices of 3D UI mobility control, where only 6.2% of these applications allowed users to transition UI between entities. In response, we built interaction prototypes to facilitate UI transitions between entities. We report on results from a qualitative user study (N=14) on 3D UI mobility control using our FingerSwitches technique, which suggests that perceived usefulness is affected by types of entities and environments. We aspire to tackle a vital need in UI mobility within XR. View details
    Preview abstract Interruptions in digital services are a common occurrence for users. These disruptions, however, exact a cost in terms of attention, task completion rate, and, most importantly, emotional state. While several methods currently employed by service providers attempt to address this, the paper will argue that browser games or similar interactive interfaces should become a standard mechanism to ease the aforementioned effects. View details
    ChatDirector: Enhancing Video Conferencing with Space-Aware Scene Rendering and Speech-Driven Layout Transition
    Yinda Zhang
    Brian Moreno Collins
    David Kim
    Karthik Ramani
    Ruofei Du
    Proceedings of the 2024 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM, pp. 16 (to appear)
    Preview abstract Remote video conferencing systems (RVCS) are widely adopted in personal and professional communication. However, they often lack the co-presence experience of in-person meetings. This is largely due to the absence of intuitive visual cues and clear spatial relationships among remote participants, which can lead to speech interruptions and loss of attention. This paper presents ChatDirector, a novel RVCS that overcomes these limitations by incorporating space-aware visual presence and speech-aware attention transition assistance. ChatDirector employs a real-time pipeline that converts participants' RGB video streams into 3D portrait avatars and renders them in a virtual 3D scene. We also contribute a decision tree algorithm that directs the avatar layouts and behaviors based on participants' speech states. We report on results from a user study (N=16) where we evaluated ChatDirector. The satisfactory algorithm performance and complimentary subject user feedback imply that ChatDirector significantly enhances communication efficacy and user engagement. View details
    Preview abstract A recent large-scale experiment conducted by Chrome has demonstrated that a "quieter" web permission prompt can reduce unwanted interruptions while only marginally affecting grant rates. However, the experiment and the partial roll-out were missing two important elements: (1) an effective and context-aware activation mechanism for such a quieter prompt, and (2) an analysis of user attitudes and sentiment towards such an intervention. In this paper, we address these two limitations by means of a novel ML-based activation mechanism -- and its real-world on-device deployment in Chrome -- and a large-scale user study with 13.1k participants from 156 countries. First, the telemetry-based results, computed on more than 20 million samples from Chrome users in-the-wild, indicate that the novel on-device ML-based approach is both extremely precise (>99% post-hoc precision) and has very high coverage (96% recall for notifications permission). Second, our large-scale, in-context user study shows that quieting is often perceived as helpful and does not cause high levels of unease for most respondents. View details
    Preview abstract The web utilizes permission prompts to moderate access to certain capabilities. We present the first investigation of user behavior and sentiment of this security and privacy measure on the web, using 28 days of telemetry data from more than 100M Chrome installations on desktop platforms and experience sampling responses from 25,706 Chrome users. Based on this data, we find that ignoring and dismissing permission prompts are most common for geolocation and notifications. Permission prompts are perceived as more annoying and interrupting when they are not allowed, and most respondents cite a rational reason for the decision they took. Our data also supports that the perceived availability of contextual information from the requesting website is associated with allowing access to a requested capability. More usable permission controls could facilitate adoption of best practices that address several of the identified challenges; and ultimately could lead to better user experiences and a safer web. View details
    Preview abstract Motivated by the necessity of guiding and monitoring students' progress in real-time when assembling circuits during in-class activities we propose BlinkBoard, an augmented breadboard to enhance offline as well as online physical computing classes. BlinkBoard uses LEDs placed on each row of the breadboard to guide, via four blinking patterns, how to place and connect components and wires. It also uses a set of Input/Output pins to sense voltage levels at user-specified rows or to generate voltage output. Our hardware uses an open JSON protocol of commands and responses that can be integrated with a graphical application hosted on a computer that ensures bidirectional communication between each of the students' BreadBoard and the instructor's dashboard and slides. The hardware is affordable and simple, partially due to a customized circuit configured via a hardware description language that handles the LEDs' patterns with minimal load on the Arduino micro-controller. Finally, we briefly show how this hardware made its way to a workshop with high-school students and an undergraduate class in a design department. View details
    Preview abstract The articles delves into the promise of AI in business intelligence. It briefly reviews the evolution of BI and various Cloud tools, followed by the paradigm shift in how data is consumed. While AI brings huge potential, the article covers areas that enterprises must exercise caution over, when building intelligent agents to answer data questions. View details
    Take it, Leave it, or Fix it: Measuring Productivity and Trust in Human-AI Collaboration
    29th International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces (IUI ’24), ACM, New York, NY, USA (2024)
    Preview abstract Although recent developments in generative AI have greatly enhanced the capabilities of conversational agents such as Google's Bard or OpenAI's ChatGPT, it's unclear whether the usage of these agents aids users across various contexts. To better understand how access to conversational AI affects productivity and trust, we conducted a mixed-methods, task-based user study, observing 76 software engineers (N=76) as they completed a programming exam with and without access to Bard. Effects on performance, efficiency, satisfaction, and trust vary depending on user expertise, question type (open-ended "solve" questions vs. definitive "search" questions), and measurement type (demonstrated vs. self-reported). Our findings include evidence of automation complacency, increased reliance on the AI over the course of the task, and increased performance for novices on “solve”-type questions when using the AI. We discuss common behaviors, design recommendations, and impact considerations to improve collaborations with conversational AI. View details