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Publishing our work allows us to share ideas and work collaboratively to advance the field of computer science.

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Publishing our work allows us to share ideas and work collaboratively to advance the field of computer science.

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1 - 15 of 15427 publications
    Dynamic Inference of Likely Symbolic Tensor Shapes in Python Machine Learning Programs
    Koushik Sen
    International Conference on Software Engineering: Software Engineering in Practice (ICSE-SEIP) (2024) (to appear)
    Preview abstract In machine learning programs, it is often tedious to annotate the dimensions of shapes of various tensors that get created during execution. We present a dynamic likely tensor shape inference analysis that annotates the dimensions of shapes of tensor expressions with symbolic dimension values. Such annotations can be used for understanding the machine learning code written in popular frameworks, such as TensorFlow, PyTorch, JAX, and for finding bugs related to tensor shape mismatch. View details
    Preview abstract Embeddings have become a pivotal means to represent complex, multi-faceted information about entities, concepts, and relationships in a condensed and useful format. Nevertheless, they often preclude direct interpretation. While downstream tasks make use of these compressed representations, meaningful interpretation usually requires visualization using dimensionality reduction or specialized machine learning interpretability methods. This paper addresses the challenge of making such embeddings more interpretable and broadly useful, by employing large language models (LLMs) to directly interact with embeddings -- transforming abstract vectors into understandable narratives. By injecting embeddings into LLMs, we enable querying and exploration of complex embedding data. We demonstrate our approach on a variety of diverse tasks, including: enhancing concept activation vectors (CAVs), communicating novel embedded entities, and decoding user preferences in recommender systems. Our work couples the immense information potential of embeddings with the interpretative power of LLMs. View details
    Generative AI in Creative Practice: ML-Artist Folk Theories of T2I Use, Harm, and Harm-Reduction
    Shalaleh Rismani
    Proceedings of the CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '24), Association for Computing Machinery (2024), pp. 1-17 (to appear)
    Preview abstract Understanding how communities experience algorithms is necessary to mitigate potential harmful impacts. This paper presents folk theories of text-to-image (T2I) models to enrich understanding of how artist communities experience creative machine learning (ML) systems. This research draws on data collected from a workshop with 15 artists from 10 countries who incorporate T2I models in their creative practice. Through reflexive thematic analysis of workshop data, we highlight theorization of T2I use, harm, and harm-reduction. Folk theories of use envision T2I models as an artistic medium, a mundane tool, and locate true creativity as rising above model affordances. Theories of harm articulate T2I models as harmed by engineering efforts to eliminate glitches and product policy efforts to limit functionality. Theories of harm-reduction orient towards protecting T2I models for creative practice through transparency and distributed governance. We examine how these theories relate, and conclude by discussing how folk theorization informs responsible AI efforts. View details
    Preview abstract Online navigation platforms are well optimized to solve for the standard objective of minimizing the travel time and typically require precomputation-based architectures (such as Contraction Hierarchies and the Customizable Route Planning) to do so in a fast manner. The reason for this dependence is the size of the graph that represents the road network, which is large. The need to go beyond minimizing the travel time and introduce various types of customizations has led to approaches that rely on alternative route computation or, more generally, small subgraph extraction. On a small subgraph, one is able to run computationally expensive algorithms at query time and compute optimal solutions for multiple routing problems. In this framework, it is critical for the subgraph to a) be small and b) include (near) optimal routes for a collection of customizations. This is precisely the setting that we study in this work. We design algorithms that extract a subgraph connecting designated terminals with the objective to minimize the subgraph's size and the constraint to include near optimal routes for a set of predefined cost functions. We provide theoretical guarantees for our algorithms and evaluate them empirically using real world road networks. View details
    Preview abstract Learning from Label Proportions (LLP) is a learning problem where only aggregate level labels are available for groups of instances, called bags, during training, and the aim is to get the best performance at the instance-level on the test data. This setting arises in domains like advertising and medicine due to privacy considerations. We propose a novel algorithmic framework for this problem that iteratively performs two main steps. For the first step (Pseudo Labeling) in every iteration, we define a Gibbs distribution over binary instance labels that incorporates a) covariate information through the constraint that instances with similar covariates should have similar labels and b) the bag level aggregated label. We then use Belief Propagation (BP) to marginalize the Gibbs distribution to obtain pseudo labels. In the second step (Embedding Refinement), we use the pseudo labels to provide supervision for a learner that yields a better embedding. Further, we iterate on the two steps again by using the second step's embeddings as new covariates for the next iteration. In the final iteration, a classifier is trained using the pseudo labels. Our algorithm displays strong gains against several SOTA baselines for the LLP Binary Classification problem on various dataset types - Small Tabular, Large Tabular and Images. We achieve these improvements with minimal computational overhead above standard supervised learning due to Belief Propagation, for large bag sizes, even for a million samples. View details
    Preview abstract Advances in machine learning for health care have brought concerns about bias from the research community; specifically, the introduction, perpetuation, or exacerbation of care disparities. Reinforcing these concerns is the finding that medical images often reveal signals about sensitive attributes in ways that are hard to pinpoint by both algorithms and people. This finding raises a question about how to best design general purpose pretrained embeddings (GPPEs, defined as embeddings meant to support a broad array of use cases) for building downstream models that are free from particular types of bias. The downstream model should be carefully evaluated for bias, and audited and improved as appropriate. However, in our view, well intentioned attempts to prevent the upstream components—GPPEs—from learning sensitive attributes can have unintended consequences on the downstream models. Despite producing a veneer of technical neutrality, the resultant end-to-end system might still be biased or poorly performing. We present reasons, by building on previously published data, to support the reasoning that GPPEs should ideally contain as much information as the original data contain, and highlight the perils of trying to remove sensitive attributes from a GPPE. We also emphasise that downstream prediction models trained for specific tasks and settings, whether developed using GPPEs or not, should be carefully designed and evaluated to avoid bias that makes models vulnerable to issues such as distributional shift. These evaluations should be done by a diverse team, including social scientists, on a diverse cohort representing the full breadth of the patient population for which the final model is intended. View details
    Large Scale Self-Supervised Pretraining for Active Speaker Detection
    Alice Chuang
    Keith Johnson
    Tony (Tuấn) Nguyễn
    Wei Xia
    Yunfan Ye
    ICASSP 2024 (2024) (to appear)
    Preview abstract In this work we investigate the impact of a large-scale self-supervised pretraining strategy for active speaker detection (ASD) on an unlabeled dataset consisting of over 125k hours of YouTube videos. When compared to a baseline trained from scratch on much smaller in-domain labeled datasets we show that with pretraining we not only have a more stable supervised training due to better audio-visual features used for initialization, but also improve the ASD mean average precision by 23\% on a challenging dataset collected with Google Nest Hub Max devices capturing real user interactions. View details
    Conformal Language Modeling
    Victor Quach
    Adam Fisch
    Adam Yala
    Jae Ho Sohn
    Tommi Jaakkola
    Regina Barzilay
    ICLR (2024) (to appear)
    Preview abstract In this paper, we propose a novel approach to conformal prediction (CP) that is adapted to generative, large language models (LLMs). Conformal prediction is a popular technique for deriving prediction sets from machine learning models that have rigorous, statistical performance guarantees. We extend conformal techniques to a broad class of language models that sample from a conditional distribution over the combinatorial, unbounded space of possible text outputs, given some input prompt. Specifically, we translate the process of constructing prediction sets into calibrating a \emph{stopping rule}, under which we draw diverse samples from our model until we are confident that the growing set of candidate answers includes at least one high-quality response. At the same time, we calibrate a \emph{rejection rule} to selectively discard low-quality or redundant responses to reduce sample noise. Under minimal assumptions, we theoretically prove that our resulting output sets contain at least one high-quality answer with some desired probability that a user can set (such as $90\%$), while still remaining empirically precise on average. Furthermore, within this set of sampled candidate answers, we show that we can also accurately identify subsets of individual components (e.g., phrases or sentences) that are each independently correct (e.g., that are not ``hallucinations'')---again, with provably high probability. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on multiple types of large language models applied to tasks in open-domain question answering, text summarization, and radiology report generation. View details
    Preview abstract Table-based reasoning with large language models (LLMs) is a promising direction to tackle many table understanding tasks, such as table-based question answering and fact verification. Compared with generic reasoning, table-based reasoning requires the extraction of underlying semantics from both free-form questions and semi-structured tabular data. Chain-of-Thought and its similar approaches incorporate the reasoning chain in the form of textual context, but it is still an open question how to effectively leverage tabular data in the reasoning chain. We propose the Chain-of-Table framework, where tabular data is explicitly used in the reasoning chain as a proxy for intermediate thoughts. Specifically, we guide LLMs using in-context learning to iteratively generate operations and update the table to represent a tabular reasoning chain. LLMs can therefore dynamically plan the next operation based on the results of the previous ones. This continuous evolution of the table forms a chain, showing the reasoning process for a given tabular problem. The chain carries structured information of the intermediate results, enabling more accurate and reliable predictions. Chain-of-Table achieves new state-of-the-art performance on WikiTQ, FeTaQA, and TabFact benchmarks across multiple LLM choices. View details
    Preview abstract We propose a neural network model that can separate target speech sources from interfering sources at different angular regions using two microphones. The model is trained with simulated room impulse responses (RIRs) using omni-directional microphones without needing to collect real RIRs. By relying on specific angular regions and multiple room simulations, the model utilizes consistent time difference of arrival (TDOA) cues, or what we call delay contrast, to separate target and interference sources while remaining robust in various reverberation environments. We demonstrate the model is not only generalizable to a commercially available device with a slightly different microphone geometry, but also outperforms our previous work which uses one additional microphone on the same device. The model runs in real-time on-device and is suitable for low-latency streaming applications such as telephony and video conferencing. View details
    Preview abstract Predictive uncertainty-a model's self awareness regarding its accuracy on an input-is key for both building robust models via training interventions and for test-time applications such as selective classification. We propose a novel instance-conditioned reweighting approach that captures predictive uncertainty using an auxiliary network and unifies these train- and test-time applications. The auxiliary network is trained using a meta-objective in a bilevel optimization framework. A key contribution of our proposal is the meta-objective of minimizing the dropout variance, an approximation of Bayesian Predictive uncertainty. We show in controlled experiments that we effectively capture the diverse specific notions of uncertainty through this meta-objective, while previous approaches only capture certain aspects. These results translate to significant gains in real-world settings-selective classification, label noise, domain adaptation, calibration-and across datasets-Imagenet, Cifar100, diabetic retinopathy, Camelyon, WILDs, Imagenet-C,-A,-R, Clothing1M, etc. For Diabetic Retinopathy, we see upto 3.4%/3.3% accuracy and AUC gains over SOTA in selective classification. We also improve upon large-scale pretrained models such as PLEX. View details
    Network Flow Problems with Electric Vehicles
    Haripriya Pulyassary
    Aaron Schild
    David Shmoys
    Manxi Wu
    IPCO (2024)
    Preview abstract Electric vehicle (EV) adoption in long-distance logistics faces challenges like range anxiety and uneven distribution of charging stations. Two pivotal questions emerge: How can EVs be efficiently routed in a charging network considering range limits, charging speeds and prices And, can the existing charging infrastructure sustain the increasing demand for EVs in long-distance logistics? This paper addresses these questions by introducing a novel theoretical and computational framework to study the EV network flow problems. We present an EV network flow model that incorporates range restrictions and nonlinear charging rates, and identify conditions under which polynomial-time solutions can be obtained for optimal single EV routing, maximum flow, and minimum cost flow problems. We develop efficient computational methods for computing the optimal routing and flow vector using a novel graph augmentation technique. Our findings provide insights for optimizing EV routing in logistics, ensuring an efficient and sustainable future. View details
    Data Exchange Markets via Utility Balancing
    Aditya Bhaskara
    Sungjin Im
    Kamesh Munagala
    Govind S. Sankar
    WebConf (2024)
    Preview abstract This paper explores the design of a balanced data-sharing marketplace for entities with heterogeneous datasets and machine learning models that they seek to refine using data from other agents. The goal of the marketplace is to encourage participation for data sharing in the presence of such heterogeneity. Our market design approach for data sharing focuses on interim utility balance, where participants contribute and receive equitable utility from refinement of their models. We present such a market model for which we study computational complexity, solution existence, and approximation algorithms for welfare maximization and core stability. We finally support our theoretical insights with simulations on a mean estimation task inspired by road traffic delay estimation. View details
    LFM-3D: Learnable Feature Matching Across Wide Baselines Using 3D Signals
    Arjun Karpur
    Guilherme Perrotta
    Ricardo Martin-Brualla
    Proc. 3DV'24 (2024) (to appear)
    Preview abstract Finding localized correspondences across different images of the same object is crucial to understand its geometry. In recent years, this problem has seen remarkable progress with the advent of deep learning-based local image features and learnable matchers. Still, learnable matchers often underperform when there exists only small regions of co-visibility between image pairs (i.e. wide camera baselines). To address this problem, we leverage recent progress in coarse single-view geometry estimation methods. We propose LFM-3D, a Learnable Feature Matching framework that uses models based on graph neural networks and enhances their capabilities by integrating noisy, estimated 3D signals to boost correspondence estimation. When integrating 3D signals into the matcher model, we show that a suitable positional encoding is critical to effectively make use of the low-dimensional 3D information. We experiment with two different 3D signals - normalized object coordinates and monocular depth estimates - and evaluate our method on large-scale (synthetic and real) datasets containing object-centric image pairs across wide baselines. We observe strong feature matching improvements compared to 2D-only methods, with up to +6% total recall and +28% precision at fixed recall. Additionally, we demonstrate that the resulting improved correspondences lead to much higher relative posing accuracy for in-the-wild image pairs - up to 8.6% compared to the 2D-only approach. View details