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Shumin Zhai

Shumin Zhai

Shumin Zhai is a Human-Computer Interaction research scientist at Google where he leads and directs research, design, and development of input methods and haptics systems on Google’s and its partner’s flagship products. His research career has contributed to foundational models and understandings of human-computer interaction as well as practical user interface inventions and products based on his scientific and technical insights. He originated and led the SHARK/ShapeWriter project at IBM Research and a start-up company that pioneered the touchscreen word-gesture keyboard paradigm, filing the first patents of this paradigm, publishing the first generation of scientific papers, releasing the first word-gesture keyboard in 2004 and a top ranked (6th) iPhone app called ShapeWriter WritingPad in 2008. His publications have won the ACM UIST Lasting Impact Award and a IEEE Computer Society Best Paper Award, among others. He served as the 4th Editor-in-Chief of ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, and frequently contributes to other academic boards and program committees. He received his Ph.D. degree at the University of Toronto in 1995. In 2006, he was selected as one of ACM's inaugural class of Distinguished Scientists. In 2010 he was named Member of the CHI Academy and Fellow of the ACM.

His external web page is at www.shuminzhai.com.

Authored Publications
Google Publications
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    TapNet: The Design, Training, Implementation, and Applications of a Multi-Task Learning CNN for Off-Screen Mobile Input
    Michael Xuelin Huang
    Nazneen Nazneen
    Alex Chao
    ACM CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM (2021)
    Preview abstract Off-screen interaction offers great potential for one-handed and eyes-free mobile interaction. While a few existing studies have explored the built-in mobile phone sensors to sense off-screen signals, none met practical requirement. This paper discusses the design, training, implementation and applications of TapNet, a multi-task network that detects tapping on the smartphone using built-in accelerometer and gyroscope. With sensor location as auxiliary information, TapNet can jointly learn from data across devices and simultaneously recognize multiple tap properties, including tap direction and tap location. We developed four datasets consisting of over 180K training samples, 38K testing samples, and 87 participants in total. Experimental evaluation demonstrated the effectiveness of the TapNet design and its significant improvement over the state of the art. Along with the datasets, codebase, and extensive experiments, TapNet establishes a new technical foundation for off-screen mobile input. View details
    i’sFree: Eyes-Free Gesture Typing via a Touch-Enabled Remote Control
    Suwen Zhu
    Xiaojun Bi
    Proceedings of the 2019 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 448:1-448:12 (to appear)
    Preview abstract Entering text without having to pay attention to the keyboard is compelling but challenging due to the lack of visual guidance. We propose i'sFree to enable eyes-free gesture typing on a distant display from a touch-enabled remote control. i'sFree does not display the keyboard or gesture trace but decodes gestures drawn on the remote control into text according to an invisible and shifting Qwerty layout. i'sFree decodes gestures similar to a general gesture typing decoder, but learns from the instantaneous and historical input gestures to dynamically adjust the keyboard location. We designed it based on the understanding of how users perform eyes-free gesture typing. Our evaluation shows eyes-free gesture typing is feasible: reducing visual guidance on the distant display hardly affects the typing speed. Results also show that the i’sFree gesture decoding algorithm is effective, enabling an input speed of 23 WPM, 46% faster than the baseline eyes-free condition built on a general gesture decoder. Finally, i'sFree is easy to learn: participants reached 22 WPM in the first ten minutes, even though 40% of them were first-time gesture typing users. View details
    Active Edge: Designing Squeeze Gestures for the Google Pixel 2
    Claire Lee
    Melissa Barnhart
    Proceedings of the 2019 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM, New York, NY, 274:1-274:13
    Preview abstract Active Edge is a feature of Google Pixel 2 smartphone devices that creates a force-sensitive interaction surface along their sides, allowing users to perform gestures by holding and squeezing their device. Supported by strain gauge elements adhered to the inner sidewalls of the device chassis, these gestures can be more natural and ergonomic than on-screen (touch) counterparts. Developing these interactions is an integration of several components: (1) an insight and understanding of the user experiences that benefit from squeeze gestures; (2) hardware with the sensitivity and reliability to sense a user's squeeze in any operating environment; (3) a gesture design that discriminates intentional squeezes from innocuous handling; and (4) an interaction design to promote a discoverable and satisfying user experience. This paper describes the design and evaluation of Active Edge in these areas as part of the product's development and engineering. View details
    M3 Gesture Menu: Design and Experimental Analyses of Marking Menus for Touchscreen Mobile Interaction
    Kun Li
    Proceedings of the 2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 249:1-249:14
    Preview abstract Despite their learning advantages in theory, marking menus have faced adoption challenges in practice, even on today's touchscreen-based mobile devices. We address these challenges by designing, implementing, and evaluating multiple versions of M3 Gesture Menu (M3), a reimagination of marking menus targeted at mobile interfaces. M3 is defined on a grid rather than in a radial space, relies on gestural shapes rather than directional marks, and has constant and stationary space use. Our first controlled experiment on expert performance showed M3 was faster and less error-prone by a factor of two than traditional marking menus. A second experiment on learning demonstrated for the first time that users could successfully transition to recall-based execution of a dozen commands after three ten-minute practice sessions with both M3 and Multi-Stroke Marking Menu. Together, M3, with its demonstrated resolution, learning, and space use benefits, contributes to the design and understanding of menu selection in the mobile-first era of end-user computing. View details
    Modeling Gesture-Typing Movements
    Human-Computer Interaction, vol. 33 (2018), pp. 234-280
    Preview abstract Word–Gesture keyboards allow users to enter text using continuous input strokes (also known as gesture typing or shape writing). We developed a production model of gesture typing input based on a human motor control theory of optimal control (specifically, modeling human drawing movements as a minimization of jerk—the third derivative of position). In contrast to existing models, which consider gestural input as a series of concatenated aiming movements and predict a user’s time performance, this descriptive theory of human motor control predicts the shapes and trajectories that users will draw. The theory is supported by an analysis of user-produced gestures that found qualitative and quantitative agreement between the shapes users drew and the minimum jerk theory of motor control. Furthermore, by using a small number of statistical via-points whose distributions reflect the sensorimotor noise and speed–accuracy trade-off in gesture typing, we developed a model of gesture production that can predict realistic gesture trajectories for arbitrary text input tasks. The model accurately reflects features in the figural shapes and dynamics observed from users and can be used to improve the design and evaluation of gestural input systems. View details
    A Cost–Benefit Study of Text Entry Suggestion Interaction
    Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM, New York, NY, pp. 83-88
    Preview abstract Mobile keyboards often present error corrections and word completions (suggestions) as candidates for anticipated user input. However, these suggestions are not cognitively free: they require users to attend, evaluate, and act upon them. To understand this trade-off between suggestion savings and interaction costs, we conducted a text transcription experiment that controlled interface assertiveness: the tendency for an interface to present itself. Suggestions were either always present (extraverted), never present (introverted), or gated by a probability threshold (ambiverted). Results showed that although increasing the assertiveness of suggestions reduced the number of keyboard actions to enter text and was subjectively preferred, the costs of attending to and using the suggestions impaired average time performance. View details
    Optimizing Touchscreen Keyboards for Gesture Typing
    Brian Smith
    Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2015), ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp. 3365-3374
    Preview abstract Despite its growing popularity, gesture typing suffers from a major problem not present in touch typing: gesture ambiguity on the Qwerty keyboard. By applying rigorous mathematical optimization methods, this paper systematically investigates the optimization space related to the accuracy, speed, and Qwerty similarity of a gesture typing keyboard. Our investigation shows that optimizing the layout for gesture clarity (a metric measuring how unique word gestures are on a keyboard) drastically improves the accuracy of gesture typing. Moreover, if we also accommodate gesture speed, or both gesture speed and Qwerty similarity, we can still reduce error rates by 52% and 37% over Qwerty, respectively. In addition to investigating the optimization space, this work contributes a set of optimized layouts such as GK-D and GK-T that can immediately benefit mobile device users. View details
    Long-Short Term Memory Neural Network for Keyboard Gesture Recognition
    Thomas Breuel
    Johan Schalkwyk
    International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP) (2015)
    Preview
    Effects of Language Modeling and its Personalization on Touchscreen Typing Performance
    Andrew Fowler
    Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2015), ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp. 649-658
    Preview abstract Modern smartphones correct typing errors and learn userspecific words (such as proper names). Both techniques are useful, yet little has been published about their technical specifics and concrete benefits. One reason is that typing accuracy is difficult to measure empirically on a large scale. We describe a closed-loop, smart touch keyboard (STK) evaluation system that we have implemented to solve this problem. It includes a principled typing simulator for generating human-like noisy touch input, a simple-yet-effective decoder for reconstructing typed words from such spatial data, a large web-scale background language model (LM), and a method for incorporating LM personalization. Using the Enron email corpus as a personalization test set, we show for the first time at this scale that a combined spatial/language model reduces word error rate from a pre-model baseline of 38.4% down to 5.7%, and that LM personalization can improve this further to 4.6%. View details
    Both Complete and Correct? Multi-Objective Optimization of Touchscreen Keyboard
    Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2014), ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp. 2297-2306
    Preview
    FFitts Law: Modeling Finger Touch with Fitts’ Law
    Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2013), ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp. 1363-1372
    Preview abstract Fitts’ law has proven to be a strong predictor of pointing performance under a wide range of conditions. However, it has been insufficient in modeling small-target acquisition with finger-touch based input on screens. We propose a dual-distribution hypothesis to interpret the distribution of the endpoints in finger touch input. We hypothesize the movement endpoint distribution as a sum of two independent normal distributions. One distribution reflects the relative precision governed by the speed-accuracy tradeoff rule in the human motor system, and the other captures the absolute precision of finger touch independent of the speed-accuracy tradeoff effect. Based on this hypothesis, we derived the FFitts model—an expansion of Fitts’ law for finger touch input. We present three experiments in 1D target acquisition, 2D target acquisition and touchscreen keyboard typing tasks respectively. The results showed that FFitts law is more accurate than Fitts’ law in modeling finger input on touchscreens. At 0.91 or a greater R2 value, FFitts’ index of difficulty is able to account for significantly more variance than conventional Fitts’ index of difficulty based on either a nominal target width or an effective target width in all the three experiments. View details
    Making touchscreen keyboards adaptive to keys, hand postures, and individuals: a hierarchical spatial backoff model approach
    Ying Yin
    Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2013), ACM, New York, NY, pp. 2775-2784
    Preview
    Octopus: Evaluating Touchscreen Keyboard Correction and Recognition Algorithms via “Remulation”
    Shiri Azenkot
    Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2013), ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp. 543-552
    Preview abstract The time and labor demanded by a typical laboratory-based keyboard evaluation are limiting resources for algorithmic adjustment and optimization. We propose Remulation, a complementary method for evaluating touchscreen keyboard correction and recognition algorithms. It replicates prior user study data through real-time, on-device simulation. To demonstrate remulation, we have developed Octopus, an evaluation tool that enables keyboard developers to efficiently measure and inspect the impact of algorithmic changes without conducting resource-intensive user studies. It can also be used to evaluate third-party keyboards in a “black box” fashion, without access to their algorithms or source code. Octopus can evaluate both touch keyboards and word-gesture keyboards. Two empirical examples show that Remulation can efficiently and effectively measure many aspects of touch screen keyboards at both macro and micro levels. Additionally, we contribute two new metrics to measure keyboard accuracy at the word level: the Ratio of Error Reduction (RER) and the Word Score. View details
    Bayesian Touch - A Statistic Criterion of Target Selection with Finger Touch
    Proceedings of UIST 2013 – The ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp. 51-60
    Preview abstract To improve the accuracy of target selection for finger touch, we conceptualize finger touch input as an uncertain process, and derive a statistical target selection riterion, Bayesian Touch Criterion, from combining the basic Bayes’ rule of probability with the generalized dual Gaussian distribution hypothesis of finger touch. Bayesian Touch Criterion states that the selected target is the candidate with the shortest Bayesian Touch Distance to the touch point, which is computed from the touch point to target center distance and the size of the target. We give the derivation of the Bayesian touch criterion and its empirical evaluation with two experiments. The results show for 2D circular target selection, Bayesian Touch Criterion is significantly more accurate than the commonly used Visual Boundary Criterion (i.e., a target is selected if and only if the touch point falls within its boundary) and its two variants. View details
    Touch behavior with different postures on soft smartphone keyboards
    Shiri Azenkot
    Proceedings of the 14th international conference on Human-computer interaction with mobile devices and services (MobileHCI '12), ACM (2012), pp. 251-260
    Preview
    A Comparative Evaluation of Finger and Pen Stroke Gestures
    Huawei Tu
    Xiangshi Ren
    ACM CHI 2012 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM, Austin, TX, pp. 1287-1296
    Preview abstract This paper reports an empirical investigation in which participants produced a set of stroke gestures with varying degrees of complexity and in different target sizes using both the finger and the pen. The recorded gestures were then analyzed according to multiple measures characterizing many aspects of stroke gestures. Our findings were as follows: (1) Finger drawn gestures were quite different to pen drawn gestures in basic measures including size ratio and average speed. Finger drawn gestures tended to be larger and faster than pen drawn gestures. They also differed in shape geometry as measured by, for example, aperture of closed gestures, corner shape distance and intersecting points deviation; (2) Pen drawn gestures and finger drawn gestures were similar in several measures including articulation time, indicative angle difference, axial symmetry and proportional shape distance; (3) There were interaction effects between gesture implement (finger vs. pen) and target gesture size and gesture complexity. Our findings show that half of the features we tested were performed well enough by the finger. This finding suggests that "finger friendly" systems should exploit these features when designing finger interfaces and avoid using the other features in which the finger does not perform as well as the pen. View details
    Foundational Issues in Touch-Surface Stroke Gesture Design — An Integrative Review
    Per Ola Kristensson, Caroline Appert, Tue Haste Anderson, Xiang Cao
    Foundations and Trends in Human–Computer Interaction, NOW (2012), pp. 97-205
    Preview abstract The advent of modern touchscreen devices has unleashed many opportunities and calls for innovative use of stroke gestures as a richer interaction medium. A significant body of knowledge on stroke gesture design is scattered throughout the Human-Computer Interaction research literature. Primarily based on the authors' own decade-long gesture user interface (UI) research which launched the word-gesture keyboard paradigm, Foundational Issues in Touch-Surface Stroke Gesture Design - An Integrative Review synthesizes some of the foundational issues of human motor control complexity, visual and auditory feedback, and memory and learning capacity concerning gesture user interfaces. In the second half of the book a set of gesture UI design principles is derived from the research literature. The book also covers system implementation aspects of gesture UI such as gesture recognition algorithms and design toolkits. Foundational Issues in Touch-Surface Stroke Gesture Design - An Integrative Review is an ideal primer for researchers and graduate students embarking on research in gesture interfaces. It is also an excellent reference for designers and developers who want to leverage insights and lessons learned in the academic research community. View details
    Bimanual gesture keyboard
    Proceeding of UIST 2012 – The ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp. 137-146
    Preview abstract Gesture keyboards represent an increasingly popular way to input text on mobile devices today. However, current gesture keyboards are exclusively unimanual. To take advantage of the capability of modern multi-touch screens, we created a novel bimanual gesture text entry system, extending the gesture keyboard paradigm from one finger to multiple fingers. To address the complexity of recognizing bimanual gesture, we designed and implemented two related interaction methods, finger-release and space-required, both based on a new multi-stroke gesture recognition algorithm. A formal experiment showed that bimanual gesture behaviors were easy to learn. They improved comfort and reduced the physical demand relative to unimanual gestures on tablets. The results indicated that these new gesture keyboards were valuable complements to unimanual gesture and regular typing keyboards. View details
    The word-gesture keyboard: reimagining keyboard interaction (CACM Research Highlight)
    Per Ola Kristensson
    Communications of the ACM, vol. 55, no. 9 (2012), pp. 91-101
    Preview
    Smart Phone Use by Non-Mobile Business Users
    Patti Bao
    Jeffrey Pierce
    Stephen Whittaker
    MobileHCI 2011, ACM, Stockholm, Sweden, pp. 445-454
    Preview abstract The rapid increase in smart phone capabilities has introduced new opportunities for mobile information access and computing. However, smart phone use may still be constrained by both device affordances and work environments. To understand how current business users employ smart phones and to identify opportunities for improving business smart phone use, we conducted two studies of actual and perceived performance of standard work tasks. Our studies involved 243 smart phone users from a large corporation. We intentionally chose users who primarily work with desktops and laptops, as these “nonmobile” users represent the largest population of business users. Our results go beyond the general intuition that smart phones are better for consuming than producing information: we provide concrete measurements that show how fast reading is on phones and how much slower and more effortful text entry is on phones than on computers. We also demonstrate that security mechanisms are a significant barrier to wider business smart phone use. We offer design suggestions to overcome these barriers. View details
    Understanding information preview in mobile email processing
    Kimberly A. Weaver
    Huahai Yang
    Mobile HCI, ACM (2011), pp. 303-312
    Preview abstract Browsing a collection of information on a mobile device is a common task, yet it can be difficult due to the small size of mobile displays. A common trade-off offered by many current mobile interfaces is to allow users to switch between an overview and detailed views of particular items. An open question is how much preview of each item to include in the overview. Using a mobile email processing task, we attempted to answer that question. We investigated participants' email processing behaviors under differing preview conditions in a semi-controlled, naturalistic study. We collected log data of participants' actual behaviors as well as their subjective impressions of different conditions. Our results suggest that a moderate level of two to three lines of preview should be the default. The overall benefit of a moderate amount of preview was supported by both positive subjective ratings and fewer transitions between the overview and individual items. View details
    Multilingual Touchscreen Keyboard Design and Optimization
    Barton A. Smith
    Human Computer Interaction, vol. 27 (2012), pp. 352-382
    Phone n' Computer: teaming up an information appliance with a PC
    Min Yin
    Jeffrey S. Pierce
    Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, vol. 14 (2010), pp. 601-607
    Foundations for designing and evaluating user interfaces based on the crossing paradigm
    Georg Apitz
    François Guimbretière
    ACM Trans. Comput.-Hum. Interact., vol. 17 (2010)
    SHRIMP: solving collision and out of vocabulary problems in mobile predictive input with motion gesture
    Jingtao Wang
    John F. Canny
    CHI (2010), pp. 15-24
    Pen pressure control in trajectory-based interaction
    Jibin Yin
    Xiangshi Ren
    Behaviour & Information Technology, vol. 29 (2010), pp. 137-148
    “Writing with music”: Exploring the use of auditory feedback in gesture interfaces
    Tue Haste Andersen
    ACM Transactions on Applied Perception (TAP), vol. 7 (2010)
    Quasi-qwerty soft keyboard optimization
    Barton A. Smith
    CHI (2010), pp. 283-286
    Using strokes as command shortcuts: cognitive benefits and toolkit support
    Caroline Appert
    CHI (2009), pp. 2289-2298
    The performance of touch screen soft buttons
    Seungyon Lee
    CHI (2009), pp. 309-318
    Shapewriter on the iphone: from the laboratory to the real world
    Per Ola Kristensson
    Pengjun Gong
    Michael Greiner
    Shilei Allen Peng
    Liang Mico Liu
    Anthony Dunnigan
    CHI Extended Abstracts (2009), pp. 2667-2670
    On the ease and efficiency of human-computer interfaces
    ETRA (2008), pp. 9-10
    Improving word-recognizers using an interactive lexicon with active and passive words
    Per Ola Kristensson
    IUI (2008), pp. 353-356
    Interlaced QWERTY: accommodating ease of visual search and input flexibility in shape writing
    Per Ola Kristensson
    CHI (2008), pp. 593-596
    Hard lessons: effort-inducing interfaces benefit spatial learning
    Andy Cockburn
    Per Ola Kristensson
    Jason Alexander
    CHI (2007), pp. 1571-1580
    Learning shape writing by game playing
    Per Ola Kristensson
    CHI Extended Abstracts (2007), pp. 1971-1976
    Command strokes with and without preview: using pen gestures on keyboard for command selection
    Per Ola Kristensson
    CHI (2007), pp. 1137-1146
    Modeling human performance of pen stroke gestures
    Xiang Cao
    CHI (2007), pp. 1495-1504
    The benefits of augmenting telephone voice menu navigation with visual browsing and search
    Min Yin
    CHI (2006), pp. 319-328
    Camera phone based motion sensing: interaction techniques, applications and performance study
    Jingtao Wang
    John F. Canny
    UIST (2006), pp. 101-110
    RealTourist - A Study of Augmenting Human-Human and Human-Computer Dialogue with Eye-Gaze Overlay
    Pernilla Qvarfordt
    David Beymer
    INTERACT (2005), pp. 767-780
    Introduction to sensing-based interaction
    Victoria Bellotti
    ACM Trans. Comput.-Hum. Interact., vol. 12 (2005), pp. 1-2
    Conversing with the user based on eye-gaze patterns
    Pernilla Qvarfordt
    CHI (2005), pp. 221-230
    In search of effective text input interfaces for off the desktop computing
    Per Ola Kristensson
    Barton A. Smith
    Interacting with Computers, vol. 17 (2005), pp. 229-250
    Dial and see: tackling the voice menu navigation problem with cross-device user experience integration
    Min Yin
    UIST (2005), pp. 187-190
    Relaxing stylus typing precision by geometric pattern matching
    Per Ola Kristensson
    IUI (2005), pp. 151-158
    SHARK2: a large vocabulary shorthand writing system for pen-based computers
    Per Ola Kristensson
    UIST (2004), pp. 43-52
    TNT: a numeric keypad based text input method
    Magnus Ingmarsson
    David Dinka
    CHI (2004), pp. 639-646
    Human Action Laws in Electronic Virtual Worlds - An Empirical Study of Path Steering Performance in VR
    Johnny Accot
    Rogier Woltjer
    Presence, vol. 13 (2004), pp. 113-127
    View size and pointing difficulty in multi-scale navigation
    Yves Guiard
    Michel Beaudouin-Lafon
    Julien Bastin
    Dennis Pasveer
    AVI (2004), pp. 117-124
    Top-down learning strategies: can they facilitate stylus keyboard learning?
    Paul Ung-Joon Lee
    Int. J. Hum.-Comput. Stud., vol. 60 (2004), pp. 585-598
    Characterizing computer input with Fitts' law parameters-the information and non-information aspects of pointing
    Int. J. Hum.-Comput. Stud., vol. 61 (2004), pp. 791-809
    Speed-accuracy tradeoff in Fitts' law tasks-on the equivalency of actual and nominal pointing precision
    Jing Kong
    Xiangshi Ren
    Int. J. Hum.-Comput. Stud., vol. 61 (2004), pp. 823-856
    Candidate Display Styles in Japanese Input
    Xiangshi Ren
    Kinya Tamura
    Jing Kong
    INTERACT (2003)
    Refining Fitts' law models for bivariate pointing
    Johnny Accot
    CHI (2003), pp. 193-200
    Collaboration Meets Fitts' Law: Passing Virtual Objects with and without Haptic Force Feedback
    Eva-Lotta Sallnäs
    INTERACT (2003)
    Shorthand writing on stylus keyboard
    Per Ola Kristensson
    CHI (2003), pp. 97-104
    What's in the eyes for attentive input
    Commun. ACM, vol. 46 (2003), pp. 34-39
    High precision touch screen interaction
    Pär-Anders Albinsson
    CHI (2003), pp. 105-112
    Human on-line response to target expansion
    Stéphane Conversy
    Michel Beaudouin-Lafon
    Yves Guiard
    CHI (2003), pp. 177-184
    Human Movement Performance in Relation to Path Constraint - The Law of Steering in Locomotion
    Rogier Woltjer
    VR (2003), pp. 149-
    Movement model, hits distribution and learning in virtual keyboarding
    Alison E. Sue
    Johnny Accot
    CHI (2002), pp. 17-24
    More than dotting the i's - foundations for crossing-based interfaces
    Johnny Accot
    CHI (2002), pp. 73-80
    Scale effects in steering law tasks
    Johnny Accot
    CHI (2001), pp. 1-8
    Chinese input with keyboard and eye-tracking: an anatomical study
    Jingtao Wang
    Hui Su
    CHI (2001), pp. 349-356
    The metropolis keyboard - an exploration of quantitative techniques for virtual keyboard design
    Michael A. Hunter
    Barton A. Smith
    UIST (2000), pp. 119-128
    Gaze and Speech in Attentive User Interfaces
    Paul P. Maglio
    Teenie Matlock
    Christopher S. Campbell
    Barton A. Smith
    ICMI (2000), pp. 1-7
    Hand eye coordination patterns in target selection
    Barton A. Smith
    Janet Ho
    Wendy S. Ark
    ETRA (2000), pp. 117-122
    Manual and Gaze Input Cascaded (MAGIC) Pointing
    Carlos Morimoto
    Steven Ihde
    CHI (1999), pp. 246-253
    In Search of the `Magic Carpet': Design and Experimentation of a Bimanual 3D Navigation Interface
    Eser Kandogan
    Barton A. Smith
    Ted Selker
    J. Vis. Lang. Comput., vol. 10 (1999), pp. 3-17
    Multistream Input: An Experimental Study of Document Scrolling Methods
    Barton A. Smith
    IBM Systems Journal, vol. 38 (1999), pp. 642-651
    Performance Evaluation of Input Devices in Trajectory-Based Tasks: An Application of the Steering Law
    Johnny Accot
    CHI (1999), pp. 466-472
    Keeping an Eye for HCI
    Carlos Hitoshi Morimoto
    David Koons
    Arnon Amir
    Myron Flickner
    SIBGRAPI (1999), pp. 171-176
    Representation Matters: The Effect of 3D Objects and a Spatial Metaphor in a Graphical User Interface
    Wendy S. Ark
    D. Christopher Dryer
    Ted Selker
    BCS HCI (1998), pp. 209-219
    Quantifying Coordination in Multiple DOF Movement and Its Application to Evaluating 6 DOF Input Devices
    Paul Milgram
    CHI (1998), pp. 320-327
    Manual and Cognitive Benefits of Two-Handed Input: An Experimental Study
    Andrea Leganchuk
    William Buxton
    ACM Trans. Comput.-Hum. Interact., vol. 5 (1998), pp. 326-359
    Beyond Fitts' Law: Models for Trajectory-Based HCI Tasks
    Johnny Accot
    CHI (1997), pp. 295-302
    Graphical Means of Directing User's Attention in the Visual Interface
    Julie Wright
    Ted Selker
    Sabra-Anne Kelin
    INTERACT (1997), pp. 59-66
    An Isometric Tongue Pointing Device
    Chris Salem
    CHI (1997), pp. 538-539
    Improving Browsing Performance: A study of four input devices for scrolling and pointing tasks
    Barton A. Smith
    Ted Selker
    INTERACT (1997), pp. 286-293
    Dual Stream Input for Pointing and Scrolling
    Barton A. Smith
    Ted Selker
    CHI Extended Abstracts (1997), pp. 305-306
    Anisotropic human performance in six degree-of-freedom tracking: an evaluation of three-dimensional display and control interfaces
    Paul Milgram
    Anu Rastogi
    IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part A, vol. 27 (1997), pp. 518-528
    The Influence of Muscle Groups on Performance of Multiple Degree-of-Freedom Input
    Paul Milgram
    William Buxton
    CHI (1996), pp. 308-315
    The Partial-Occlusion Effect: Utilizing Semitransparency in 3D Human-Computer Interaction
    William Buxton
    Paul Milgram
    ACM Trans. Comput.-Hum. Interact., vol. 3 (1996), pp. 254-284
    The "silk cursor": investigating
    William Buxton
    Paul Milgram
    CHI Conference Companion (1994), pp. 233
    Input techniques for HCI in 3D environments
    Paul Milgram
    CHI Conference Companion (1994), pp. 85-86
    The "Silk Cursor": investigating transparency for 3D target acquisition
    William Buxton
    Paul Milgram
    CHI (1994), pp. 459-464
    Virtual Reality for Palmtop Computers
    George W. Fitzmaurice
    Mark H. Chignell
    ACM Trans. Inf. Syst., vol. 11 (1993), pp. 197-218
    An evaluation of four 6 degree-of-freedom input techniques
    Paul Milgram
    David Drascic
    INTERCHI Adjunct Proceedings (1993), pp. 123-125
    ARGOS: a display system for augmenting reality
    David Drascic
    Julius Grodski
    Paul Milgram
    Ken Ruffo
    Peter Wong
    INTERCHI (1993), pp. 521
    Human Performance Evaluation of Manipulation Schemes in Virtual Environments
    Paul Milgram
    VR (1993), pp. 155-161
    From Icons to Interface Models: Designing Hypermedia from the Bottom Up
    John A. Waterworth
    Mark H. Chignell
    International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, vol. 39 (1993), pp. 453-472