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Paweł Krzysztof Nowak

Paweł Krzysztof Nowak

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    Preview abstract We tackle the problem of weakly-supervised conversational Question Answering over large Knowledge Graphs using a neural semantic parsing approach. We introduce a new Logical Form (LF) grammar that can model a wide range of queries on the graph while remaining sufficiently simple to generate supervision data efficiently. Our Transformer-based model takes a JSON-like structure as input, allowing us to easily incorporate both Knowledge Graph and conversational contexts. This structured input is transformed to lists of embeddings and then fed to standard attention layers. We validate our approach, both in terms of grammar coverage and LF execution accuracy, on two publicly available datasets, CSQA and ConvQuestions, both grounded in Wikidata. On CSQA, our approach increases the coverage from 80% to 96.2%, and the LF execution accuracy from 70.6% to 75.6%, with respect to previous state-of-the-art results. On ConvQuestions, we achieve competitive results with respect to the state-of-the-art. View details
    Autopilot: Workload Autoscaling at Google Scale
    Paweł Findeisen
    Jacek Świderski
    Przemyslaw Broniek
    Beata Strack
    Piotr Witusowski
    Proceedings of the Fifteenth European Conference on Computer Systems, Association for Computing Machinery (2020) (to appear)
    Preview abstract In many public and private Cloud systems, users need to specify a limit for the amount of resources (CPU cores and RAM) to provision for their workloads. A job that exceeds its limits might be throttled or killed, resulting in delaying or dropping end-user requests, so human operators naturally err on the side of caution and request a larger limit than the job needs. At scale, this results in massive aggregate resource wastage. To address this, Google uses Autopilot to configure resources automatically, adjusting both the number of concurrent tasks in a job (horizontal scaling) and the CPU/memory limits for individual tasks (vertical scaling). Autopilot walks the same fine line as human operators: its primary goal is to reduce slack – the difference between the limit and the actual resource usage – while minimizing the risk that a task is killed with an out-of-memory (OOM) error or its performance degraded because of CPU throttling. Autopilot uses machine learning algorithms applied to historical data about prior executions of a job, plus a set of finely-tuned heuristics, to walk this line. In practice, Autopiloted jobs have a slack of just 23%, compared with 46% for manually-managed jobs. Additionally, Autopilot reduces the number of jobs severely impacted by OOMs by a factor of 10. Despite its advantages, ensuring that Autopilot was widely adopted took significant effort, including making potential recommendations easily visible to customers who had yet to opt in, automatically migrating certain categories of jobs, and adding support for custom recommenders. At the time of writing, Autopiloted jobs account for over 48% of Google's fleet-wide resource usage. View details
    Tapas: Weakly Supervised Table Parsing via Pre-training
    Thomas Müller
    Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers), Association for Computational Linguistics, Seattle, Washington, United States (2020)
    Preview abstract Answering natural language questions over tables is usually seen as a semantic parsing task. To alleviate the collection cost of full logical forms, one popular approach focuses on weak supervision consisting of denotations instead of logical forms. However, training semantic parsers from weak supervision poses difficulties, and in addition, the generated logical forms are only used as an intermediate step prior to retrieving the denotation. In this paper, we present TAPAS, an approach to question answering over tables without generating logical forms. TAPAS trains from weak supervision, and predicts the denotation by selecting table cells and optionally applying a corresponding aggregation operator to such selection. TAPAS extends BERT's architecture to encode tables as input, initializes from an effective joint pre-training of text segments and tables crawled from Wikipedia, and is trained end-to-end. We experiment with three different semantic parsing datasets, and find that TAPAS outperforms or rivals semantic parsing models by improving state-of-the-art accuracy on SQA from 55.1 to 67.2 and performing on par with the state-of-the-art on WIKISQL and WIKITQ, but with a simpler model architecture. We additionally find that transfer learning, which is trivial in our setting, from WIKISQL to WIKITQ, yields 48.7 accuracy, 4.2 points above the state-of-the-art. View details
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