Google Research

F1 Query: Declarative Querying at Scale

  • Bart Samwel
  • John Cieslewicz
  • Ben Handy
  • Jason Govig
  • Petros Venetis
  • Chanjun Yang
  • Keith Peters
  • Jeff Shute
  • Daniel Tenedorio
  • Himani Apte
  • Felix Weigel
  • David G Wilhite
  • Jiacheng Yang
  • Jun Xu
  • Jiexing Li
  • Zhan Yuan
  • Craig Chasseur
  • Qiang Zeng
  • Ian Rae
  • Anurag Biyani
  • Andrew Harn
  • Yang Xia
  • Andrey Gubichev
  • Amr El-Helw
  • Orri Erling
  • Allen Yan
  • Mohan Yang
  • Yiqun Wei
  • Thanh Do
  • Colin Zheng
  • Goetz Graefe
  • Somayeh Sardashti
  • Ahmed Aly
  • Divy Agrawal
  • Ashish Gupta
  • Shivakumar Venkataraman
PVLDB (2018), pp. 1835-1848


F1 Query is a stand-alone, federated query processing platform that executes SQL queries against data stored in different file-based formats as well as different storage systems (e.g., BigTable, Spanner, Google Spreadsheets, etc.). F1 Query eliminates the need to maintain the traditional distinction between different types of data processing workloads by simultaneously supporting: (i) OLTP-style point queries that affect only a few records; (ii) low-latency OLAP querying of large amounts of data; and (iii) large ETL pipelines transforming data from multiple data sources into formats more suitable for analysis and reporting. F1 Query has also significantly reduced the need for developing hard-coded data processing pipelines by enabling declarative queries integrated with custom business logic. F1 Query satisfies key requirements that are highly desirable within Google: (i) it provides a unified view over data that is fragmented and distributed over multiple data sources; (ii) it leverages datacenter resources for performant query processing with high throughput and low latency; (iii) it provides high scalability for large data sizes by increasing computational parallelism; and (iv) it is extensible and uses innovative approaches to integrate complex business logic in declarative query processing. This paper presents the end-to-end design of F1 Query. Evolved out of F1, the distributed database that Google uses to manage its advertising data, F1 Query has been in production for multiple years at Google and serves the querying needs of a large number of users and systems.

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