49th International Conference on Very Large Data Bases, VLDB (2023), pp. 3475-3487
Napa powers Google's critical data warehouse needs. It utilizes Log-Structured Merge Tree (LSM) for real-time data ingestion and achieves sub-second query latency for billions of queries per day. Napa handles a wide variety of query workloads: from full-table scans, to range scans, and multi-key lookups. Our design challenge is to handle this diverse query workload that runs concurrently. In particular, a large percentage of our query volume consists of external reporting queries characterized by multi-key lookups with strict sub-second query latency targets.
Query parallelization, which is achieved by processing a query in parallel by partitioning the input data (i.e., the SIMD model of computation), is an important technique to meet the low latency targets. Traditionally, the effectiveness of parallelization of a query is highly dependent on the alignment with the data partitioning established at write time. Unfortunately, such a write-time partitioning scheme cannot handle the highly variable parallelization requirements that are needed on a per-query basis.
The key to Napa’s success is its ability to adapt its query parallelization requirements on a per-query basis. This paper describes an index-based approach to perform data partitioning for queries that have sub-second latency requirements. Napa’s approach is progressive in that it can provide good partitioning within the time budgeted for partitioning. Since the end-to-end query time also includes the time to perform partitioning there is a tradeoff in terms of the time spent for partitioning and the resulting evenness of the partitioning. Our approach balances these opposing considerations to provide sub-second querying for billions of queries each day. We use production data to establish the effectiveness of Napa’s approach across easy to handle workloads to the most pathological conditions.View details
Proceedings of the VLDB Endowment (PVLDB), vol. 14 (12) (2021), pp. 2986-2998
There are numerous Google services that continuously generate vast amounts of log data that are used to provide valuable insights to internal and external business users. We need to store and serve these planet-scale data sets under extremely demanding requirements of scalability, sub-second query response times, availability even in the case of entire data center failures, strong consistency guarantees, ingesting a massive stream of updates coming from the applications used around the globe. We have developed and deployed in production an analytical data management system, called Napa, to meet these requirements. Napa is the backend for multiple internal and external clients in Google so there is a strong expectation of variance-free robust query performance. At its core, Napa’s principal technologies for robust query performance include the aggressive use of materialized views that are maintained consistently as new data is ingested across multiple data centers. Our clients also demand flexibility in being able to adjust their query performance, data freshness, and costs to suit their unique needs. Robust query processing and flexible configuration of client databases are the hallmark of Napa design. Most of the related work in this area takes advantage of full flexibility to design the whole system without the need to support a diverse set of preexisting use cases, whereas Napa needs to deal with the hard constraints of applications that differ on which characteristics of the system are most important to optimize. Those constraints led us to make particular design decisions and also devise new techniques to meet the challenges. In this paper, we share our experiences in designing, implementing, deploying, and running Napa in production with some of Google’s most demanding applications.View details
The ongoing and increasing interest in HTAP (Hybrid Transactional and Analytical Processing) systems documents the intense interest from data owners in simultaneously running transactional and analytical workloads over the same data set. Much of the reported work on HTAP has arisen in the context of “green field” systems, answering the question “if we could design a system for HTAP from scratch, what would it look like?” While there is great merit in such an approach, and a lot of valuable technology has been developed with it, we found ourselves facing a different challenge: one in which there is a great deal of transactional data already existing in several transactional systems, heavily queried by an existing federated engine that does not “own” the transactional systems, supporting both new and legacy applications that demand transparent fast queries and transactions from this combination. This paper reports on our design and experiences with F1 Lightning, a system we built and deployed to meet this challenge. We describe our design decisions, some details of our implementation, and our experience with the system in production for some of Google's most demanding applications.View details
F1 Query is a stand-alone, federated query processing platform that executes SQL queries against data stored in different file-based formats as well as different storage systems (e.g., BigTable, Spanner, Google Spreadsheets, etc.). F1 Query eliminates the need to maintain the traditional distinction between different types of data processing workloads by simultaneously supporting: (i) OLTP-style point queries that affect only a few records; (ii) low-latency OLAP querying of large amounts of data; and (iii) large ETL pipelines transforming data from multiple data sources into formats more suitable for analysis and reporting. F1 Query has also significantly reduced the need for developing hard-coded data processing pipelines by enabling declarative queries integrated with custom business logic. F1 Query satisfies key requirements that are highly desirable within Google: (i) it provides a unified view over data that is fragmented and distributed over multiple data sources; (ii) it leverages datacenter resources for performant query processing with high throughput and low latency; (iii) it provides high scalability for large data sizes by increasing computational parallelism; and (iv) it is extensible and uses innovative approaches to integrate complex business logic in declarative query processing. This paper presents the end-to-end design of F1 Query. Evolved out of F1, the distributed database that Google uses to manage its advertising data, F1 Query has been in production for multiple years at Google and serves the querying needs of a large number of users and systems.View details
No Results Found
We're always looking for more talented, passionate people.