Fast Orthogonal Projection Based on Kronecker Product

Xu Zhang
Shengjin Wang
Shih-Fu Chang
International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV)(2015)
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We propose a family of structured matrices to speed up orthogonal projections for high-dimensional data commonly seen in computer vision applications. In this, a structured matrix is formed by the Kronecker product of a series of smaller orthogonal matrices. This achieves O(dlogd) computational complexity and O(logd) space complexity for d-dimensional data, a drastic improvement over the standard unstructured projections whose computational and space complexities are both O(d^2). We also introduce an efficient learning procedure for optimizing such matrices in a data dependent fashion. We demonstrate the significant advantages of the proposed approach in solving the approximate nearest neighbor (ANN) image search problem with both binary embedding and quantization. Comprehensive experiments show that the proposed approach can achieve similar or better accuracy as the existing state-of-the-art but with significantly less time and memory.