Jump to Content
Ruiqi Guo

Ruiqi Guo

Authored Publications
Google Publications
Other Publications
Sort By
  • Title
  • Title, descending
  • Year
  • Year, descending
    Preview abstract The approximate nearest neighbor (ANN) search problem is fundamental to efficiently serving many real-world machine learning applications. A number of techniques have been developed for ANN search that are efficient, accurate, and scalable. However, such techniques typically have a number of parameters that affect the speed-recall tradeoff, and exhibit poor performance when such parameters aren't properly set. Tuning these parameters has traditionally been a manual process, demanding in-depth knowledge of the underlying search algorithm. This is becoming an increasingly unrealistic demand as ANN search grows in popularity. To tackle this obstacle to ANN adoption, this work proposes a constrained optimization-based approach to tuning quantization-based ANN algorithms. Our technique takes just a desired search cost or recall as input, and then generates tunings that, empirically, are very close to the speed-recall Pareto frontier and give leading performance on standard benchmarks. View details
    Preview abstract This paper reveals a curious observation that modern large-scale machine learning models with Transformer architectures have sparse activation maps. By activation map we refer to the intermediate output of the multi-layer perceptrons (MLPs) after a ReLU activation function, and by ``sparse'' we mean that on average very few entries (e.g., 3.0% for T5-Base and 6.3% for ViT-B16) are nonzero for each input to MLP. Through extensive experiments we demonstrate that the emergence of sparsity is a prevalent phenomenon that occurs for both natural language processing and vision tasks, on both training and evaluation data, for Transformers of various configurations, at layers of all depth levels, etc. Moreover, larger Transformers with more layers and higher MLP hidden dimensions are sparser as measured by the percentage of nonzero entries. To probe why sparsity emerges, we design experiments with random labels, random images, and infinite data, and find that sparsity may be due primarily to optimization while has little to do with the properties of training dataset. We discuss how sparsity immediately implies a means for significantly reducing the FLOP count and improving efficiency for Transformers. Moreover, we demonstrate perhaps surprisingly that explicitly enforcing an even sparser activation via Top-K thresholding with a small value of k brings a collection of desired but missing properties for Transformers, namely less sensitivity to noisy training data, more robustness to input corruptions, and better calibration for their prediction confidence. View details
    SOAR: Improved Indexing for Approximate Nearest Neighbor Search
    David Simcha
    Dave Dopson
    Neural Information Processing Systems (2023)
    Preview abstract This paper introduces SOAR: Spilling with Orthogonality-Amplified Residuals, a novel data indexing technique for approximate nearest neighbor (ANN) search. SOAR extends upon previous approaches to ANN search, such as spill trees, that utilize multiple redundant representations while partitioning the data to reduce the probability of missing a nearest neighbor during search. Rather than training and computing these redundant representations independently, however, SOAR uses an orthogonality-amplified residual loss, which optimizes each representation to compensate for cases where other representations perform poorly. This drastically improves the overall index quality, resulting in state-of-the-art ANN benchmark performance while maintaining fast indexing times and low memory consumption. View details
    Preview abstract Language models can be augmented with context retriever to incorporate knowl-edge from large external databases. By leveraging retrieved context, the neural net-work does not have to memorize the massive amount of world knowledge within its internal parameters, leading to better parameter efficiency, interpretability and mod-ularity. In this paper we examined a simple yet effective architecture for incorporat-ing external context into language models based on decoupled Encoder-Decoder architecture. We showed that such a simple architecture achieves competitive results on auto-regressive language modeling and open domain question answer-ing tasks. We also analyzed the behavior of the proposed model which performs grounded context transfer. Finally we discussed the computational implications of such retrieval augmented models. View details
    Preview abstract Factorized models, such as two tower neural network models, are widely used for scoring (query, document) pairs in information retrieval tasks. These models are typically trained by optimizing the model parameters to score relevant “positive" pairs higher than the irrelevant “negative" ones. While a large set of negatives typically improves the model performance, limited computation and memory budgets place constraints on the number of negatives used during training. In this paper, we develop a novel negative sampling technique for accelerating training with softmax cross-entropy loss. By using cached (possibly stale) item embeddings, our technique enables training with a large pool of negatives with reduced memory and computation. We also develop a streaming variant of our algorithm geared towards very large datasets. Furthermore, we establish a theoretical basis for our approach by showing that updating a very small fraction of the cache at each iteration can still ensure fast convergence. Finally, we experimentally validate our approach and show that it is efficient and compares favorably with more complex, state-of-the-art approaches. View details
    Accelerating Large-Scale Inference with Anisotropic Vector Quantization
    Erik Lindgren
    Quan Geng
    David Simcha
    International Conference on Machine Learning (2020)
    Preview abstract Quantization based techniques are the current state-of-the-art for scaling maximum inner product search to massive databases. Traditional approaches to quantization aim to minimize the reconstruction error of the database points. Based on the observation that for a given query, the database points that have the largest inner products are more relevant, we develop a family of anisotropic quantization loss functions. Under natural statistical assumptions, we show that quantization with these loss functions leads to a new variant of vector quantization that more greatly penalizes the parallel component of a datapoint's residual relative to its orthogonal component. The proposed approach, whose implementation is open-source, achieves state-of-the-art results on the public benchmarks available at ann-benchmarks.com. View details
    Optimal Noise-Adding Mechanism in Additive Differential Privacy
    Quan Geng
    Proceedings of the 22th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics (AISTATS) (2019)
    Preview abstract We derive the optimal $(0, \delta)$-differentially private query-output independent noise-adding mechanism for single real-valued query function under a general cost-minimization framework. Under a mild technical condition, we show that the optimal noise probability distribution is a uniform distribution with a probability mass at the origin. We explicitly derive the optimal noise distribution for general $\ell^p$ cost functions, including $\ell^1$ (for noise magnitude) and $\ell^2$ (for noise power) cost functions, and show that the probability concentration on the origin occurs when $\delta > \frac{p}{p+1}$. Our result demonstrates an improvement over the existing Gaussian mechanisms by a factor of two and three for $(0,\delta)$-differential privacy in the high privacy regime in the context of minimizing the noise magnitude and noise power, and the gain is more pronounced in the low privacy regime. Our result is consistent with the existing result for $(0,\delta)$-differential privacy in the discrete setting, and identifies a probability concentration phenomenon in the continuous setting. View details
    Preview abstract We characterize the minimum noise amplitude and power for noise-adding mechanisms in (epsilon, delta)-differential privacy for single real-valued query function. We derive new lower bounds using the duality of linear programming, and new upper bounds by proposing a new class of (epsilon, delta)-differentially private mechanisms, the \emph{truncated Laplacian} mechanisms. We show that the multiplicative gap of the lower bounds and upper bounds goes to zero in various high privacy regimes, proving the tightness of the lower and upper bounds and thus establishing the optimality of the truncated Laplacian mechanism. In particular, our results close the previous constant multiplicative gap in the discrete setting. Numeric experiments show the improvement of the truncated Laplacian mechanism over the optimal Gaussian mechanism in all privacy regimes. View details
    Preview abstract Learning-based binary hashing has become a powerful paradigm for fast search and retrieval in massive databases. However, due to the requirement of discrete outputs for the hash functions, learning such functions is known to be very challenging. In addition, the objective functions adopted by existing hashing techniques are mostly chosen heuristically. In this paper, we propose a novel generative approach to learn hash functions through Minimum Description Length principle such that the learned hash codes maximally compress the dataset and can also be used to regenerate the inputs. We also develop an efficient learning algorithm based on the stochastic distributional gradient, which avoids the notorious difficulty caused by binary output constraints, to jointly optimize the parameters of the hash function and the associated generative model. Extensive experiments on a variety of large-scale datasets show that the proposed method achieves better retrieval results than the existing state-of-the-art methods. View details
    Preview abstract We propose a multiscale quantization approach for fast similarity search on large, high-dimensional datasets. The key insight of the approach is that quantization methods, in particular product quantization, perform poorly when there is large variance in the norms of the data points. This is a common scenario for real-world datasets, especially when doing product quantization of residuals obtained from coarse vector quantization. To address this issue, we propose a multiscale formulation where we learn a separate scalar quantizer of the residual norm scales. All parameters are learned jointly in a stochastic gradient descent framework to minimize the overall quantization error. We provide theoretical motivation for the proposed technique and conduct comprehensive experiments on two large-scale public datasets, demonstrating substantial improvements in recall over existing state-of-the-art methods. View details
    Preview abstract Existing music recognition applications require both user activation and a connection to a server that performs the actual recognition. In this paper we present a low power music recognizer that runs entirely on a mobile phone and automatically recognizes music without requiring any user activation. A small music detector runs continuously on the mobile phone’s DSP (digital signal processor) chip and only wakes main the processor when it is confident that music is present. Once woken the detector on the main processor is provided with an 8s buffer of audio which is then fingerprinted and compared to the stored fingerprints in the on-device fingerprint database of over 70000 songs. View details
    Preview abstract This paper presents a computationally efficient machine-learned method for natural language response suggestion. Feed-forward neural networks using n-gram embedding features encode messages into vectors which are optimized to give message-response pairs a high dot-product value. An optimized search finds response suggestions. The method is evaluated in a large-scale commercial e-mail application, Inbox by Gmail. Compared to a sequence-to-sequence approach, the new system achieves the same quality at a small fraction of the computational requirements and latency. View details
    Quantization based Fast Inner Product Search
    David Simcha
    Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics, AISTATS 2016, Cadiz, Spain, May 9-11, 2016, JMLR.org, pp. 482-490
    Preview abstract We propose a quantization based approach for fast approximate Maximum Inner Product Search (MIPS). Each database vector is quantized in multiple subspaces via a set of codebooks, learned directly by minimizing the inner product quantization error. Then, the inner product of a query to a database vector is approximated as the sum of inner products with the subspace quantizers. Different from recently proposed LSH approaches to MIPS, the database vectors and queries do not need to be augmented in a higher dimensional feature space. We also provide a theoretical analysis of the proposed approach, consisting of the concentration results under mild assumptions. Furthermore, if a small sample of example queries is given at the training time, we propose a modified codebook learning procedure which further improves the accuracy. Experimental results on a variety of datasets including those arising from deep neural networks show that the proposed approach significantly outperforms the existing state-of-the-art. View details
    Fast Orthogonal Projection Based on Kronecker Product
    Xu Zhang
    Shengjin Wang
    Shih-Fu Chang
    International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV) (2015)
    Preview abstract We propose a family of structured matrices to speed up orthogonal projections for high-dimensional data commonly seen in computer vision applications. In this, a structured matrix is formed by the Kronecker product of a series of smaller orthogonal matrices. This achieves O(dlogd) computational complexity and O(logd) space complexity for d-dimensional data, a drastic improvement over the standard unstructured projections whose computational and space complexities are both O(d^2). We also introduce an efficient learning procedure for optimizing such matrices in a data dependent fashion. We demonstrate the significant advantages of the proposed approach in solving the approximate nearest neighbor (ANN) image search problem with both binary embedding and quantization. Comprehensive experiments show that the proposed approach can achieve similar or better accuracy as the existing state-of-the-art but with significantly less time and memory. View details
    Quantization based Fast Inner Product Search
    David Simcha
    CoRR, vol. abs/1509.01469 (2015)