Nevan Wichers

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    ActionBert: Leveraging User Actions for Semantic Understanding of User Interfaces
    Zecheng He
    Srinivas Sunkara
    Xiaoxue Zang
    Ying Xu
    Lijuan Liu
    Gabriel Schubiner
    Ruby Lee
    AAAI-21(2020)
    Preview abstract As mobile devices are becoming ubiquitous, regularly interacting with a variety of user interfaces (UIs) is a common aspect of daily life for many people. To improve the accessibility of these devices and to enable their usage in a variety of settings, building models that can assist users and accomplish tasks through the UI is vitally important. However, there are several challenges to achieve this. First, UI components of similar appearance can have different functionalities, making understanding their function more important than just analyzing their appearance. Second, domain-specific features like Document Object Model (DOM) in web pages and View Hierarchy (VH) in mobile applications provide important signals about the semantics of UI elements, but these features are not in a natural language format. Third, owing to a large diversity in UIs and absence of standard DOM or VH representations, building a UI understanding model with high coverage requires large amounts of training data. Inspired by the success of pre-training based approaches in NLP for tackling a variety of problems in a data-efficient way, we introduce a new pre-trained UI representation model called ActionBert. Our methodology is designed to leverage visual, linguistic and domain-specific features in user interaction traces to pre-train generic feature representations of UIs and their components. Our key intuition is that user actions, e.g., a sequence of clicks on different UI components, reveals important information about their functionality. We evaluate the proposed model on a wide variety of downstream tasks, ranging from icon classification to UI component retrieval based on its natural language description. Experiments show that the proposed ActionBert model outperforms multi-modal baselines across all downstream tasks by up to 15.5%. View details
    Preview abstract Much of recent research has been devoted to video prediction and generation, yet most of the previous works have demonstrated only limited success in generating videos on short-term horizons. The hierarchical video prediction method by Villegas et al. (2017b) is an example of a state-of-the-art method for long-term video prediction, but their method is limited because it requires ground truth annotation of high-level structures (e.g., human joint landmarks) at training time. Our network encodes the input frame, predicts a high-level encoding into the future, and then a decoder with access to the first frame produces the predicted image from the predicted encoding. The decoder also produces a mask that outlines the predicted foreground object (e.g., person) as a by-product. Unlike Villegas et al. (2017b), we develop a novel training method that jointly trains the encoder, the predictor, and the decoder together without highlevel supervision; we further improve upon this by using an adversarial loss in the feature space to train the predictor. Our method can predict about 20 seconds into the future and provides better results compared to Denton and Fergus (2018) and Finn et al. (2016) on the Human 3.6M dataset. View details
    Preview abstract Images may have elements containing text and a bounding box associated with them, for example, text identified via optical character recognition on a computer screen image, or a natural image with labeled objects. We present an end-to-end trainable architecture to incorporate the information from these elements and the image to segment/identify the part of the image a natural language expression is referring to. We calculate an embedding for each element and then project it onto the corresponding location (i.e., the associated bounding box) of the image feature map. We show that this architecture gives an improvement in resolving referring expressions, over only using the image, and other methods that incorporate the element information. We demonstrate experimental results on the referring expression datasets based on COCO, and on a webpage image referring expression dataset that we developed. View details
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