Underspecification in Scene Description to Depiction Tasks

ACL Rolling Review(2022) (to appear)
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Questions regarding implicitness, ambiguity and underspecification are crucial for multimodal image+text systems, but have received little attention to date. This paper maps out a conceptual framework to address this gap for systems which generate images from text inputs, specifically for systems which generate images depicting scenes from descriptions of those scenes. In doing so, we account for how texts and images convey different forms of meaning. We then outline a set of core challenges concerning textual and visual ambiguity and specificity tasks, as well as risks that may arise from improper handling of ambiguous and underspecified elements. We propose and discuss two strategies for addressing these challenges: a) generating a visually ambiguous output image, and b) generating a set of diverse output images.