Google Research

Matching Cross Network for Learning to Rank in Personal Search

The Web Conference 2020 (WWW) (2020)


Recent neural ranking algorithms focus on learning semantic matching between query and document terms. However, practical learning to rank systems typically rely on a wide range of side information beyond query and document textual features, like location, user context, etc. It is common practice to concatenate all of these features and rely on deep models to learn a complex representation.

We study how to effectively and efficiently combine textual information from queries and documents with other useful but less prominent side information for learning to rank. We conduct synthetic experiments to show that: 1) neural networks are inefficient at learning the interaction between two prominent features (e.g., query and document embedding features) in the presence of other less prominent features; 2) direct application of a state-of-art method for higher-order feature generation is also inefficient at learning such important interactions.

Based on the above observations, we propose a simple but effective matching cross network (MCN) method for learning to rank with side information. MCN conducts an element-wise multiplication matching of query and document embeddings and leverages a technique called latent cross to effectively learn the interaction between matching output and all side information. The approach is easy to implement, adds minimal parameters and latency overhead to standard neural ranking architectures, and can be used for efficient end-to-end training.

We conduct extensive experiments using two of the world's largest personal search engines, Gmail and Google Drive search, and show that each proposed component adds meaningful gains against a strong production baseline with minimal latency overhead, thereby demonstrating the practical effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach.

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