Google Research

On the Convergence of Model Free Learning in Mean Field Games

AAAI Conference one Artificial Intelligence (AAAI 2020)

Abstract

Learning by experience in Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) is a difficult and exciting task, due to the lack of stationarity of the environment, whose dynamics evolves as the population learns. In order to design scalable algorithms for systems with a large population of interacting agents (e.g., swarms), this paper focuses on Mean Field MAS, where the number of agents is asymptotically infinite. Recently, a very active burgeoning field studies the effects of diverse reinforcement learning algorithms for agents with no prior information on the Mean Field Game (MFG), who learn their policy through repeated experience. We adopt a high perspective on this problem and analyze in full generality the convergence of a fictitious iterative scheme using any single learning algorithm at each step. We quantify the quality of the computed approximate Nash equilibrium, in terms of the accumulated errors at each learning iteration step. Notably, we show for the first time convergence of model free learning algorithms towards non-stationary MFG equilibria, relying only on classical assumptions on the MFG dynamics. We illustrate our theoretical results with a numerical experiment in continuous action-space setting, where the best response of the iterative fictitious play scheme is computed with a deep RL algorithm.

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