Google Research

The Devil is in the Decoder: Classification, Regression and GANs

Abstract

Many machine vision applications require predictions for every pixel of the input image (for exam- ple semantic segmentation, boundary detection). Mod- els for such problems usually consist of encoders which decreases spatial resolution while learning a high-di- mensional representation, followed by decoders who re- cover the original input resolution and result in low- dimensional predictions. While encoders have been stud- ied rigorously, relatively few studies address the decoder side. Therefore this paper presents an extensive com- parison of a variety of decoders for a variety of pixel- wise tasks ranging from classification, regression to syn- thesis. Our contributions are: (1) Decoders matter: we observe significant variance in results between different types of decoders on various problems. (2) We introduce new residual-like connections for decoders. (3) We in- troduce a novel decoder: bilinear additive upsampling. (4) We explore prediction artefacts.

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