PaRaDe: Passage Ranking using Demonstrations with Large Language Models

Andrew Drozdov
Zhuyun Dai
Razieh Negin Rahimi
Andrew McCallum
Mohit Iyyer
EMNLP 2023 (Findings)


Recent work has shown that Large Language Models (LLMs) can effectively re-rank the outputs of BM25 retrieval. This is achieved zero-shot by including task-specific instructions. However, for tasks that require scoring instead of generation, few-shot prompting remains underexplored. In this work, we improve LLM-based re-ranking performance by including demonstrations in the prompt. We show that adding even a single demonstration makes a significant impact. Our detailed analysis investigates under which conditions demonstrations are the most helpful. We propose a novel difficulty-based demonstration selection strategy instead of using the commonly used approach of semantic similarity. Furthermore, we show that demonstrations helpful for ranking are also effective at question generation. We hope our research will facilitate further studies into both question generation and passage re-ranking.