DOCCI: Descriptions of Connected and Contrasting Images

Garrett Tanzer
Jaemin Cho
Sunayana Rane
Zack Berger
Zarana Parekh


Despite recent advancements, text-to-image (T2I) models still exhibit critical limitations, such as errors in understanding spatial relationships, object counting, text rendering, and more. One challenge in overcoming these failure modes is the lack of resources; the majority of existing image-text datasets provide only brief captions that do not offer sufficient detail to discrepancies between images and their descriptions. To advance the development of T2I models further, we introduce \textbf{Descriptions of Connected and Contrasting Images (DOCCI)}, a dataset of 15k images taken by a single person with detailed human-annotated descriptions in English. We meticulously annotated detailed and coherent descriptions, averaging 136 words, which sufficiently differentiate images from related or similar ones. We intentionally curated images that showcase a diverse range of visual properties, including entities with their attributes, various orientations, and lighting effects, many of which are related to each other. We thoroughly analyze the quality and characteristics of the image-description pairs, and assess the performance of the latest T2I and I2T models. The experimental results indicate that the current state-of-the-art T2I models still struggle with the aforementioned challenges, and even the SOTA models have not fully addressed them. DOCCI is publicly available, and we believe that this dataset will be a valuable benchmark for vision-language research.