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Deep Value Networks Learn to Evaluate and Iteratively Refine Structured Outputs

Michael Gygli
Mohammad Norouzi
ICML (2017)


We approach structured output prediction by learning a deep value network (DVN) that evaluates different output structures for a given input. For example, when applied to image segmentation, the value network takes an image and a segmentation mask as inputs and predicts a scalar score evaluating the mask quality and its correspondence with the image. Once the value network is optimized, at inference, it finds output structures that maximize the score of the value net via gradient descent on continuous relaxations of structured outputs. Thus DVN takes advantage of the joint modeling of the inputs and outputs. Our framework applies to a wide range of structured output prediction problems. We conduct experiments on multi-label classification based on text data and on image segmentation problems. DVN outperforms several strong baselines and the state-of-the-art results on these benchmarks. In addition, on image segmentation, the proposed deep value network learns complex shape priors and effectively combines image information with the prior to obtain competitive segmentation results.

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