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CLARA: Classifying and Disambiguating User Commands for Reliable Interactive Robotic Agents

Jeongeun Park
Seungwon Lim
Joonhyung Lee
Sangbeom Park
Sungjoon Choi
Youngjae Yu
IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters (2023) (to appear)


In this paper, we focus on inferring whether the given user command is clear, ambiguous, or infeasible in the context of interactive robotic agents utilizing large language models (LLMs). To tackle this problem, we first present an uncertainty estimation method for LLMs to classify whether the command is certain (i.e., clear) or not (i.e., ambiguous or infeasible). Once the command is classified as uncertain, we further distinguish it between ambiguous or infeasible commands leveraging LLMs with situational aware few-shot prompting in a zero-shot manner. For ambiguous commands, we further disambiguate the command by interacting with users via question generation with LLMs. We believe that proper recognition of the given commands could lead to a decrease in malfunction and undesired actions of the robot, enhancing the reliability of interactive robot agents. To evaluate the proposed system, we present a dataset consisting pair of high-level commands, scene descriptions, and labels of command type (i.e., clear, ambiguous, or infeasible). We validate the proposed method on the collected dataset, pick-and-place tabletop simulation. Furthermore, we demonstrate the approach in a real-world human-robot interaction environment, i.e., handover scenarios.