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Sheng Li

Sheng Li

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    Searching for Fast Models on Datacenter Accelerators
    Ruoming Pang
    Andrew Li
    Norm Jouppi
    Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (2021)
    Preview abstract Neural Architecture Search (NAS), together with model scaling, has shown remarkable progress in designing high accuracy and fast convolutional architecture families. However, as neither NAS nor model scaling considers sufficient hardware architecture details, they do not take full advantage of the emerging datacenter (DC) accelerators. In this paper, we search for fast and accurate CNN model families for efficient inference on DC accelerators. We first analyze DC accelerators and find that existing CNNs suffer from insufficient operational intensity, parallelism, and execution efficiency and exhibit FLOPs-latency nonproportionality. These insights let us create a DC-accelerator-optimized search space, with space-to-depth, space-to-batch, hybrid fused convolution structures with vanilla and depthwise convolutions, and block-wise activation functions. We further propose a latency-aware compound scaling (LACS), the first multi-objective compound scaling method optimizing both accuracy and latency. Our LACS discovers that network depth should grow much faster than image size and network width, which is quite different from the observations from previous compound scaling. With the new search space and LACS, our search and scaling on datacenter accelerators results in a new model series named EfficientNet-X. EfficientNet-X is up to more than 2X faster than EfficientNet (a model series with state-of-the-art trade-off on FLOPs and accuracy) on TPUv3 and GPUv100, with comparable accuracy. EfficientNet-X is also up to 7X faster than recent RegNet and ResNeSt on TPUv3 and GPUv100. Source code is at https://github.com/tensorflow/tpu/tree/master/models/official/efficientnet/tpu View details
    NeuroMeter: An Integrated Power, Area, and Timing Modeling Framework for Machine Learning Accelerators
    Tianqi Tang
    Lifeng Nai
    Norm Jouppi
    Yuan Xie
    International Symposium on High-Performance Computer Architecture (2021)
    Preview abstract Abstract—As Machine Learning (ML) becomes pervasive in the era of artificial intelligence, ML specific tools and frameworks are required for architectural research. This paper introduces NeuroMeter, an integrated power, area, and timing modeling framework for ML accelerators. NeuroMeter models the detailed architecture of ML accelerators and generates a fast and accurate estimation on power, area, and chip timing. Meanwhile, it also enables the runtime analysis of system-level performance and efficiency when the runtime activity factors are provided. NeuroMeter’s micro-architecture model includes fundamental components of ML accelerators, including systolic array based tensor units (TU), reduction trees (RT), and 1D vector units (VU). NeuroMeter has accurate modeling results, with the average power and area estimation errors below 10% and 17% respectively when validated against TPU-v1, TPU-v2, and Eyeriss. Leveraging the NeuroMeter’s new capabilities on architecting manycore ML accelerators, this paper presents the first in-depth study on the design space and tradeoffs of “Brawny and Wimpy” inference accelerators in datacenter scenarios with the insights that are otherwise difficult to discover without NeuroMeter. Our study shows that brawny designs with 64x64 systolic arrays are the most performant and efficient for inference tasks in the 28nm datacenter architectural space with a 500mm2 die area budget. Our study also reveals important tradeoffs between performance and efficiency. For datacenter accelerators with low batch inference, a small (∼16%) sacrifice of system performance (in achieved Tera operations per Second, aka TOPS) can lead to more than a 2x efficiency improvement (in achieved TOPS/TCO). To showcase NeuroMeter’s capability to model a wide range of diverse ML accelerator architectures, we also conduct a follow-on mini-case study on implications of sparsity on different ML accelerators, demonstrating wimpier accelerator architectures benefit more readily from sparsity processing despite their lower achievable raw energy efficiency. View details
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