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Nadav Golbandi

Nadav Golbandi

For a full list of pre-Google publication see my google scholar page.
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    Learning Groupwise Scoring Functions Using Deep Neural Networks
    Qingyao Ai
    Proceedings of the First International Workshop On Deep Matching In Practical Applications (2019)
    Preview abstract While in a classification or a regression setting a label or a value is assigned to each individual document, in a ranking setting we determine the relevance ordering of the entire input document list. This difference leads to the notion of relative relevance between documents in ranking. The majority of the existing learning-to-rank algorithms model such relativity at the loss level using pairwise or listwise loss functions. However, they are restricted to pointwise scoring functions, i.e., the relevance score of a document is computed based on the document itself, regardless of the other documents in the list. In this paper, we overcome this limitation by proposing generalized groupwise scoring functions (GSFs), in which the relevance score of a document is determined jointly by groups of documents in the list. We learn GSFs with a deep neural network architecture, and demonstrate that several representative learning-to-rank algorithms can be modeled as special cases in our framework. We conduct evaluation using the public MSLR-WEB30K dataset, and our experiments show that GSFs lead to significant performance improvements both in a standalone deep learning architecture, or when combined with a state-of-the-art tree-based learning-to-rank algorithm. View details
    Learning Groupwise Multivariate Scoring Functions Using Deep Neural Networks
    Qingyao Ai
    Sebastian Bruch
    Proceedings of the 5th ACM SIGIR International Conference on the Theory of Information Retrieval (ICTIR) (2019), pp. 85-92
    Preview abstract While in a classification or a regression setting a label or a value is assigned to each individual document, in a ranking setting we determine the relevance ordering of the entire input document list. This difference leads to the notion of relative relevance between documents in ranking. The majority of the existing learning-to-rank algorithms model such relativity at the loss level using pairwise or listwise loss functions. However, they are restricted to univariate scoring functions, i.e., the relevance score of a document is computed based on the document itself, regardless of other documents in the list. To overcome this limitation, we propose a new framework for multivariate scoring functions, in which the relevance score of a document is determined jointly by multiple documents in the list. We refer to this framework as GSFs---groupwise scoring functions. We learn GSFs with a deep neural network architecture, and demonstrate that several representative learning-to-rank algorithms can be modeled as special cases in our framework. We conduct evaluation using click logs from one of the largest commercial email search engines, as well as a public benchmark dataset. In both cases, GSFs lead to significant performance improvements, especially in the presence of sparse textual features. View details
    TF-Ranking: Scalable TensorFlow Library for Learning-to-Rank
    Sebastian Bruch
    Rohan Anil
    Stephan Wolf
    Proceedings of the 25th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (KDD) (2019), pp. 2970-2978
    Preview abstract Learning-to-Rank deals with maximizing the utility of a list of examples presented to the user, with items of higher relevance being prioritized. It has several practical applications such as large-scale search, recommender systems, document summarization and question answering. While there is widespread support for classification and regression based learning, support for learning-to-rank in deep learning has been limited. We propose TensorFlow Ranking, the first open source library for solving large-scale ranking problems in a deep learning framework. It is highly configurable and provides easy-to-use APIs to support different scoring mechanisms, loss functions and evaluation metrics in the learning-to-rank setting. Our library is developed on top of TensorFlow and can thus fully leverage the advantages of this platform. For example, it is highly scalable, both in training and in inference, and can be used to learn ranking models over massive amounts of user activity data, which can include heterogeneous dense and sparse features. We empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of our library in learning ranking functions for large-scale search and recommendation applications in Gmail and Google Drive. We also show that ranking models built using our model scale well for distributed training, without significant impact in metrics. The proposed library is available to the open source community, with the hope that it facilitates further academic research and industrial applications in the field of learning-to-rank. View details
    Preview abstract Semantic text matching is one of the most important research problems in many domains, including, but not limited to, information retrieval, question answering, and recommendation. Among the different types of semantic text matching, long-document-to-long-document text matching has many applications, but has rarely been studied. Most existing approaches for semantic text matching have limited success in this setting, due to their inability to capture and distill the main ideas and topics from long-form text. In this paper, we propose a novel Siamese multi-depth attention-based hierarchical recurrent neural network (SMASH RNN) that learns the long-form semantics, and enables long-form document based semantic text matching. In addition to word information, SMASH RNN is using the document structure to improve the representation of long-form documents. Specifically, SMASH RNN synthesizes information from different document structure levels, including paragraphs, sentences, and words. An attention-based hierarchical RNN derives a representation for each document structure level. Then, the representations learned from the different levels are aggregated to learn a more comprehensive semantic representation of the entire document. For semantic text matching, a Siamese structure couples the representations of a pair of documents, and infers a probabilistic score as their similarity. We conduct an extensive empirical evaluation of SMASH RNN with three practical applications, including email attachment suggestion, related article recommendation, and citation recommendation. Experimental results on public data sets demonstrate that SMASH RNN significantly outperforms competitive baseline methods across various classification and ranking scenarios in the context of semantic matching of long-form documents. View details
    Preview abstract TensorFlow Ranking is the first open source library for solving large-scale ranking problems in a deep learning framework. It is highly configurable and provides easy-to-use APIs to support different scoring mechanisms, loss functions and evaluation metrics in the learning-to-rank setting. Our library is developed on top of TensorFlow and can thus fully leverage the advantages of this platform. For example, it is highly scalable, both in training and in inference, and can be used to learn ranking models over massive amounts of user activity data. We empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of our library in learning ranking functions for large-scale search and recommendation applications in Gmail and Google Drive. View details
    Position Bias Estimation for Unbiased Learning to Rank in Personal Search
    Proceedings of the 11th ACM International Conference on Web Search and Data Mining (WSDM), ACM (2018), pp. 610-618
    Preview abstract A well-known challenge in learning from click data is its inherent bias and most notably position bias. Traditional click models aim to extract the (query, document) relevance and the estimated bias is usually discarded after relevance is extracted. In contrast, the most recent work on unbiased learning-to-rank can effectively leverage the bias and thus focuses on estimating bias rather than relevance. Existing approaches use search result randomization over a small percentage of production traffic to estimate the position bias. This is not desired because result randomization can negatively impact users' search experience. In this paper, we compare different schemes for result randomization (i.e., RandTopN and RandPair) and show their negative effect in personal search. Then we study how to infer such bias from regular click data without relying on randomization. We propose a regression-based Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm that is based on a position bias click model and that can handle highly sparse clicks in personal search. We evaluate our EM algorithm and the extracted bias in the learning-to-rank setting. Our results show that it is promising to extract position bias from regular clicks without result randomization. The extracted bias can improve the learning-to-rank algorithms significantly. In addition, we compare the pointwise and pairwise learning-to-rank models. Our results show that pairwise models are more effective in leveraging the estimated bias. View details
    The LambdaLoss Framework for Ranking Metric Optimization
    Proceedings of The 27th ACM International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management (CIKM '18), ACM (2018), pp. 1313-1322
    Preview abstract How to optimize ranking metrics such as Normalized Discounted Cumulative Gain (NDCG) is an important but challenging problem, because ranking metrics are either flat or discontinuous everywhere, which makes them hard to be optimized directly. Among existing approaches, LambdaRank is a novel algorithm that incorporates ranking metrics into its learning procedure. Though empirically effective, it still lacks theoretical justification. For example, the underlying loss that LambdaRank optimizes for remains unknown until now. Due to this, there is no principled way to advance the LambdaRank algorithm further. In this paper, we present LambdaLoss, a probabilistic framework for ranking metric optimization. We show that LambdaRank is a special configuration with a well-defined loss in the LambdaLoss framework, and thus provide theoretical justification for it. More importantly, the LambdaLoss framework allows us to define metric-driven loss functions that have clear connection to different ranking metrics. We show a few cases in this paper and evaluate them on three publicly available data sets. Experimental results show that our metric-driven loss functions can significantly improve the state-of-the-art learning-to-rank algorithms. View details
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