Google Research

Evaluation of NUMA-Aware Scheduling in Warehouse-Scale Clusters

  • Richard Wu
  • Xiao Zhang
  • Xiangling Kong
  • Yangyi Chen
  • Robert Hagmann
  • Rohit Jnagal


Non-uniform memory access (NUMA) has been extensively studied at the machine level but few studies have examined NUMA optimizations at the cluster level. This paper introduces a holistic NUMA-aware scheduling policy that combines both machine-level and cluster-level NUMA-aware optimizations. We evaluate our holistic NUMA-aware scheduling policy on Google’s production cluster trace with a cluster scheduling simulator that measures the impact of NUMAaware scheduling under two scheduling algorithms, Best Fit and Enhanced PVM (E-PVM). While our results highlight that a holistic NUMA-aware scheduling policy substantially increases the proportion of NUMA-fit tasks by 22.0% and 25.6% for both the Best Fit and E-PVM scheduling algorithms, respectively, there is a non-trivial tradeoff between cluster job packing efficiency and NUMA-fitness for the E-PVM algorithm under certain circumstances.

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