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Jonathan Herzig

Jonathan Herzig

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    Preview abstract As instruction-tuned large language models (LLMs) gain global adoption, their ability to follow instructions in multiple languages becomes increasingly crucial. In this work, we investigate how multilinguality during instruction tuning of a multilingual LLM affects instruction-following across languages from the pre-training corpus. We first show that many languages transfer some instruction-following capabilities to other languages from even monolingual tuning. Furthermore, we find that only 40 multilingual examples integrated in an English tuning set substantially improve multilingual instruction-following, both in seen and unseen languages during tuning. In general, we observe that models tuned on multilingual mixtures exhibit comparable or superior performance in multiple languages compared to monolingually tuned models, despite training on 10x fewer examples in those languages. Finally, we find that diversifying the instruction tuning set with even just 2-4 languages significantly improves cross-lingual generalization. Our results suggest that building massively multilingual instruction-tuned models can be done with only a very small set of multilingual instruction-responses. View details
    Preview abstract Automatically determining whether a text and a corresponding image are semantically aligned is a significant challenge for vision-language models, with applications in generative text-to-image and image-to-text tasks. In this work, we study methods for automatic image-text alignment evaluation. We first introduce a comprehensive evaluation set spanning multiple datasets from both text-to-image and image-to-text generation tasks, with human judgements for whether a given text-image pair is semantically aligned. We then describe two automatic methods to determine alignment: the first involving a pipeline based on question generation and visual question answering models, and the second employing an end-to-end classification approach based on synthetic data generation. Both methods surpass prior approaches in various text-image alignment tasks, with our analysis showing significant improvements in challenging cases that involve complex composition or unnatural images. Finally, we demonstrate how our approaches can localize specific misalignments between an image and a given text, and how they can be used to automatically re-rank candidates in text-to-image generation. View details
    Preview abstract A growing area of research investigates augmenting language models with tools (e.g., search engines, calculators) to overcome their shortcomings (e.g., missing or incorrect knowledge, incorrect logical inferences). Various few-shot tool-usage strategies have been proposed. However, there is no systematic and fair comparison across different strategies, or between these strategies and strong baselines that do not leverage tools. We conduct an extensive empirical analysis, finding that (1) across various datasets, example difficulty levels, and models, strong no-tool baselines are competitive to tool-assisted strategies, implying that effectively using tools with in-context demonstrations is a difficult unsolved problem; (2) for knowledge-retrieval tasks, strategies that *refine* incorrect outputs with tools outperform strategies that retrieve relevant information *ahead of* or *during generation*; (3) tool-assisted strategies are expensive in the number of tokens they require to work -- incurring additional costs by orders of magnitude -- which does not translate into significant improvement in performance. Overall, our findings suggest that few-shot tool integration is still an open challenge, emphasizing the need for comprehensive evaluations of future strategies to accurately assess their *benefits* and *costs*. View details
    Preview abstract Factual consistency evaluation is often conducted using Natural Language Inference (NLI) models, yet these models exhibit limited success in evaluating summaries. Previous work improved such models with synthetic training data. However, the data is typically based on perturbed human-written summaries, which often differ in their characteristics from real model-generated summaries and have limited coverage of possible factual errors. Alternatively, large language models (LLMs) have recently shown promising results in directly evaluating generative tasks, but are too computationally expensive for practical use. Motivated by these limitations, we introduce TrueTeacher, a method for generating synthetic data by annotating diverse model-generated summaries using a LLM. Unlike prior work, TrueTeacher does not rely on human-written summaries, and is multilingual by nature. Experiments on the TRUE benchmark show that a student model trained using our data, substantially outperforms both the state-of-the-art model with similar capacity, and the LLM teacher. In a systematic study, we compare TrueTeacher to existing synthetic data generation methods and demonstrate its superiority and robustness to domain-shift. We also show that our method generalizes to multilingual scenarios using the mFACE dataset. Finally, we release a large-scale synthetic dataset with 1.4M examples generated using TrueTeacher. View details
    TRUE: Re-evaluating Factual Consistency Evaluation
    Or Honovich
    Hagai Taitelbaum
    Vered Cohen
    Thomas Scialom
    NAACL 2022, The Association for Computational Linguistics (2022)
    Preview abstract Grounded text generation systems often generate text that contains factual inconsistencies, hindering their real-world applicability. Automatic factual consistency evaluation may help alleviate this limitation by accelerating evaluation cycles, filtering inconsistent outputs and augmenting training data. While attracting increasing attention, such evaluation metrics are usually developed and evaluated in silo for a single task or dataset, slowing their adoption. Moreover, previous meta-evaluation protocols focused on system-level correlations with human annotations, which leave the example-level accuracy of such metrics unclear. In this work, we introduce TRUE: a comprehensive study of factual consistency metrics on a standardized collection of existing texts from diverse tasks, manually annotated for factual consistency. Our standardization enables an example-level meta-evaluation protocol that is more actionable and interpretable than previously reported correlations, yielding clearer quality measures. Across diverse state-of-the-art metrics and 11 datasets we find that large-scale NLI and question generation-and-answering-based approaches achieve strong and complementary results. We recommend those methods as a starting point for model and metric developers, and hope TRUE will foster progress towards even better methods. View details
    Preview abstract Large language models (LLMs) have shown impressive results across a variety of tasks while requiring little or no direct supervision. Further, there is mounting evidence that LLMs may have potential in information-seeking scenarios. We believe the ability of an LLM to attribute the text that it generates is likely to be crucial for both system developers and users in this setting. We propose and study Attributed QA as a key first step in the development of attributed LLMs. We develop a reproducable evaluation framework for the task, using human annotations as a gold standard and a correlated automatic metric that we show is suitable for development settings. We describe and benchmark a broad set of architectures for the task. Our contributions give some concrete answers to two key questions (How to measure attribution?, and How well do current state-of-the-art methods perform on attribution?), and give some hints as to how to address a third key question (How to build LLMs with attribution?). View details
    Preview abstract Pre-trained seq2seq models are prevalent in semantic parsing, but have been found to struggle at out-of-distribution compositional generalization. In contrast, specialized model architectures have been proposed to address this issue, often at the cost of generality and in-distribution performance. In this paper, we propose a simple strategy to unlock compositionality of pre-trained seq2seq models through intermediate representations, without changing the model architectures at all. We identify several effective strategies for designing reversible and lossy intermediate representations that reduce the structural mismatch between inputs and outputs. We then apply either deterministic transformations or a second seq2seq to map the intermediate form to the original executable form. We find that the combination of our proposed transformations and pre-trained models is surprisingly effective, obtaining a new state-of-the-art on CFQ (+11.9 accuracy points) and on the template-splits of three text-to-SQL datasets (+15.0 to +19.4 accuracy points). This work highlights that intermediate representations provide an important (and potentially overlooked) degree of freedom for improving the compositional generalization abilities of pre-trained seq2seq models. View details
    Preview abstract Recent advances in open-domain QA have led to strong models based on dense retrieval, but only focused on retrieving textual passages. In this work, we tackle open-domain QA over tables for the first time, and show that retrieval can be improved by a retriever designed to handle tabular context. We present an effective pre-training procedure for our retriever and improve retrieval quality with mined hard negatives. As relevant datasets are missing, we extract a subset of NATURAL QUESTIONS (Kwiatkowski et al., 2019) into a Table QA dataset. We find that our retriever improves retrieval results from 72.0 to 81.1 recall@10 and end-to-end QA results from 33.8 to 37.7 exact match, over a BERT based retriever View details
    Tapas: Weakly Supervised Table Parsing via Pre-training
    Thomas Müller
    Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers), Association for Computational Linguistics, Seattle, Washington, United States (2020)
    Preview abstract Answering natural language questions over tables is usually seen as a semantic parsing task. To alleviate the collection cost of full logical forms, one popular approach focuses on weak supervision consisting of denotations instead of logical forms. However, training semantic parsers from weak supervision poses difficulties, and in addition, the generated logical forms are only used as an intermediate step prior to retrieving the denotation. In this paper, we present TAPAS, an approach to question answering over tables without generating logical forms. TAPAS trains from weak supervision, and predicts the denotation by selecting table cells and optionally applying a corresponding aggregation operator to such selection. TAPAS extends BERT's architecture to encode tables as input, initializes from an effective joint pre-training of text segments and tables crawled from Wikipedia, and is trained end-to-end. We experiment with three different semantic parsing datasets, and find that TAPAS outperforms or rivals semantic parsing models by improving state-of-the-art accuracy on SQA from 55.1 to 67.2 and performing on par with the state-of-the-art on WIKISQL and WIKITQ, but with a simpler model architecture. We additionally find that transfer learning, which is trivial in our setting, from WIKISQL to WIKITQ, yields 48.7 accuracy, 4.2 points above the state-of-the-art. View details
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