Jump to Content

Soravit (Beer) Changpinyo

Authored Publications
Google Publications
Other Publications
Sort By
  • Title
  • Title, desc
  • Year
  • Year, desc
    Preview abstract Automatically determining whether a text and a corresponding image are semantically aligned is a significant challenge for vision-language models, with applications in generative text-to-image and image-to-text tasks. In this work, we study methods for automatic image-text alignment evaluation. We first introduce a comprehensive evaluation set spanning multiple datasets from both text-to-image and image-to-text generation tasks, with human judgements for whether a given text-image pair is semantically aligned. We then describe two automatic methods to determine alignment: the first involving a pipeline based on question generation and visual question answering models, and the second employing an end-to-end classification approach based on synthetic data generation. Both methods surpass prior approaches in various text-image alignment tasks, with our analysis showing significant improvements in challenging cases that involve complex composition or unnatural images. Finally, we demonstrate how our approaches can localize specific misalignments between an image and a given text, and how they can be used to automatically re-rank candidates in text-to-image generation. View details
    Preview abstract Visual Question Answering (VQA) has been primarily studied through the lens of the English language. Yet, tackling VQA in other languages in the same manner would require a considerable amount of resources. In this paper, we propose scalable solutions to multilingual visual question answering (mVQA), on both data and modeling fronts. We first propose a translation-based framework to mVQA data generation that requires much less human annotation efforts than the conventional approach of directly collection questions and answers. Then, we apply our framework to the multilingual captions in the Crossmodal-3600 dataset and develop an efficient annotation protocol to create MaXM, a test-only VQA benchmark in 7 diverse languages. Finally, we develop a simple, lightweight, and effective approach as well as benchmark state-of-the-art English and multilingual VQA models. We hope that our benchmark encourages further research on mVQA. View details
    Preview abstract Creativity is an indispensable part of human cognition and also an inherent part of how we make sense of the world. Metaphorical abstraction is fundamental in communicating creative ideas through nuanced relationships between abstract concepts such as feelings. While computer vision benchmarks and approaches predominantly focus on understanding and generating literal interpretations of images, metaphorical comprehension of images remains relatively unexplored. Towards this goal, we introduce MetaCLUE, a set of vision tasks on visual metaphor. We also collect high-quality and rich metaphor annotations (abstract objects, concepts, relationships along with their corresponding object boxes) as there do not exist any datasets that facilitate the evaluation of these tasks. We perform a comprehensive analysis of state-of-the-art models in vision and language based on our annotations, highlighting strengths and weaknesses of current approaches in visual metaphor Classification, Localization, Understanding (retrieval, question answering, captioning) and gEneration (text-to-image synthesis) tasks. We hope this work provides a concrete step towards developing AI systems with human-like creative capabilities. View details
    Preview abstract Effective scaling and a flexible task interface enable large-capacity language models to excel at many tasks. PaLI (Pathways Language and Image model) extends these ideas to the joint modeling of language and vision. PaLI is a model that generates text based on visual and textual inputs. Using this API, PaLI is able to perform many vision, language, and multimodal tasks, across many languages. We train PaLI with two main principles: reuse of pretrained unimodal components, and joint scaling of modalities. Using large-capacity pretrained language models and vision models allows us to capitalize on their existing capabilities, while leveraging the substantial cost of training them. We scale PaLI models across three axes:the language component, the vision component, and the training data that fuses them. For the vision component, we train the largest and best-performing VisionTransformer (ViT) to date. For the data, we build an image-text training set over10B images and covering over 100 languages. PaLI inherits and enhances language-understanding capabilities, and achieves state-of-the-art in multiple vision and language tasks (image classification, image captioning, visual question-answering, scene-text understanding, etc.), based on a simple, modular, and reuse-friendly platform for modeling and scaling. View details
    Preview abstract The ability to recognize and reason about text embedded in visual inputs is often lacking in vision-and-language (V&L) models, perhaps because V&L pre-training methods have often failed to include such an ability in their training objective. In this paper, we propose PreSTU, a novel pre-training recipe dedicated to scene-text understanding (STU). PreSTU introduces OCR-aware pre-training objectives that encourage the model to recognize text from an image and connect it to the rest of the image content. We implement PreSTU using a simple transformer-based encoder-decoder architecture, combined with large-scale image-text datasets with scene text obtained from an off-the-shelf OCR system. We empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of this pre-training approach on eight visual question answering and four image captioning benchmarks. View details
    Connecting Vision and Language with Video Localized Narratives
    Vittorio Ferrari
    IEEE / CVF Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Conference (CVPR) 2023 (to appear)
    Preview abstract We propose Video Localized Narratives, a new form of multimodal video annotations connecting vision and language. In the original Localized Narratives, annotators speak and move their mouse simultaneously on an image, thus grounding each word with a mouse trace segment. However, this is challenging on a video. Our new protocol empowers annotators to tell the story of a video with Localized Narratives, capturing even complex events involving multiple actors interacting with each other and with several passive objects. We annotated 20k videos of the OVIS, UVO, and Oops datasets, totalling 1.7M words. Based on this data, we also construct new benchmarks for the video narrative grounding and video question-answering tasks, and provide reference results from strong baseline models. Our annotations are available at https://google.github.io/video-localized-narratives/. View details
    Preview abstract Visual Question Answering (VQA) has benefited from increasingly sophisticated models, but has not enjoyed the same level of engagement in terms of data creation. In this paper, we propose a method that automatically derives VQA examples at volume, by leveraging the abundance of existing image-caption annotations combined with neural models for textual question generation. We show that the resulting data is of high-quality. VQA models trained on our data improve state-of-the-art zero-shot accuracy by double digits and achieve a level of robustness that lacks in the same model trained on human-annotated VQA data. View details
    Preview abstract Neural module networks (NMN) are a popular approach for solving multi-modal tasks such as visual question answering (VQA) and visual referring expression recognition (REF). A key limitation in prior implementations of NMNs is that the neural modules do not capture the association between the visual input and the relevant neighbourhood context of the textual input. This limits their generalizability. or instance, NMNs fail to understand new concepts such as "yellow sphere to the left" even when it is a combination of known concepts from train data: "blue sphere", "yellow cube", and "metallic cube to the left". In this paper, we address this limitation by introducing a language-guided adaptive convolution layer (LG-Conv) into NMN, in which the filter weights of convolutions are explicitly multiplied with a spatially varying language-guided kernel. Our model allows the neural module to adaptively co-attend over potential objects of interest from the visual and textual inputs. Extensive experiments on VQA and REF tasks demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. Additionally, we propose a new challenging out-of-distribution test split for REF task, which we call C3-Ref+, for explicitly evaluating the NMN's ability to generalize well to adversarial perturbations and unseen combinations of known concepts. Experiments on C3-Ref+ further demonstrate the generalization capabilities of our approach. View details
    Preview abstract Most existing image retrieval systems use text queries as a way for the user to express what they are looking for. However, fine-grained image retrieval often requires the ability to also express the where in the image the content they are looking for is. The text modality can only cumbersomely express such localization preferences, whereas pointing is a more natural fit. In this paper, we propose an image retrieval setup with a new form of multimodal queries, where the user simultaneously uses both spoken natural language (the what) and mouse traces over an empty canvas (the where) to express the characteristics of the desired target image. We then describe simple modifications to an existing image retrieval model, enabling it to operate in this setup. Qualitative and quantitative experiments show that our model effectively takes this spatial guidance into account, and provides significantly more accurate retrieval results compared to text-only equivalent systems. View details
    Preview abstract One challenge in evaluating visual question answering (VQA) models in the cross-dataset adaptation setting is that the distribution shifts are multi-modal, making it difficult to identify if it is the shifts in visual or language features that play a key role. In this paper, we propose a semi-automatic framework for generating disentangled shifts by introducing a controllable visual question-answer generation (VQAG) module that is capable of generating highly-relevant and diverse question-answer pairs with the desired dataset style. We use it to create CrossVQA, a collection of test splits for assessing VQA generalization based on the VQA2, VizWiz, and Open Images datasets. We provide an analysis of our generated datasets and demonstrate its utility by using them to evaluate several state-of-the-art VQA systems. One important finding is that the visual shifts in cross-dataset VQA matter more than the language shifts. More broadly, we present a scalable framework for systematically evaluating the machine with little human intervention. View details
    Preview abstract The availability of large-scale image captioning and visual question answering datasets has contributed significantly to recent successes in vision-and-language pre-training. However, these datasets are often collected with overrestrictive requirements, inherited from their original target tasks (e.g., image caption generation), which limit the resulting dataset scale and diversity. We take a step further in pushing the limits of vision-and-language pre-training data by relaxing the data collection pipeline used in Conceptual Captions 3M (CC3M) [Sharma et al. 2018] and introduce the Conceptual 12M (CC12M), a dataset with 12 million image-text pairs specifically meant to be used for vision-and-language pre-training. We perform an analysis of this dataset, as well as benchmark its effectiveness against CC3M on multiple downstream tasks with an emphasis on long-tail visual recognition. The quantitative and qualitative results clearly illustrate the benefit of scaling up pre-training data for vision-and-language tasks, as indicated by the new state-of-the-art results on both the nocaps and Conceptual Captions benchmarks. View details
    Preview abstract Many objects do not appear frequently enough in complex scenes (e.g., certain handbags in living rooms) for training an accurate object detector, but are often found frequently by themselves (e.g., in product images). Yet, these object-centric images are not effectively leveraged for improving object detection in scene-centric images. In this paper, we propose Mosaic of Object-centric images as Scene-centric images (MosaicOS), a simple and novel framework that is surprisingly effective at tackling the challenges of long-tailed object detection. Keys to our approach are three-fold: (i) pseudo scene-centric image construction from object-centric images for mitigating domain differences, (ii) high-quality bounding box imputation using the object-centric images' class labels, and (iii) a multi-stage training procedure. On LVIS object detection (and instance segmentation), MosaicOS leads to a massive 60% (and 23%) relative improvement in average precision for rare object categories. We also show that our framework can be compatibly used with other existing approaches to achieve even further gains. Our pre-trained models are publicly available at https://github.com/czhang0528/MosaicOS/. View details
    On Model Calibration for Long-Tailed Object Detection and Instance Segmentation
    Tai-Yu Pan
    Cheng Zhang
    Yandong Li
    Hexiang Hu
    Dong Xuan
    Wei-Lun Chao
    NeurIPS (2021)
    Preview abstract Vanilla models for object detection and instance segmentation suffer from the heavy bias toward detecting frequent objects in the long-tailed setting. Existing methods address this issue mostly during training, e.g., by re-sampling or re-weighting. In this paper, we investigate a largely overlooked approach -- post-processing calibration of confidence scores. We propose NorCal, Normalized Calibration for long-tailed object detection and instance segmentation, a simple and straightforward recipe that reweighs the predicted scores of each class by its training sample size. We show that separately handling the background class and normalizing the scores over classes for each proposal are keys to achieving superior performance. On the LVIS dataset, NorCal can effectively improve nearly all the baseline models not only on rare classes but also on common and frequent classes. Finally, we conduct extensive analysis and ablation studies to offer insights into various modeling choices and mechanisms of our approach. View details
    Preview abstract We propose Localized Narratives, a new form of multimodal image annotations connecting vision and language. We ask annotators to describe an image with their voice while simultaneously hovering their mouse over the region they are describing. Since the voice and the mouse pointer are synchronized, we can localize every single word in the description. This dense visual grounding takes the form of a mouse trace segment per word and is unique to our data. We annotated 849k images with Localized Narratives: the whole COCO, Flickr30k, and ADE20K datasets, and 671k images of Open Images, all of which we make publicly available. We provide an extensive analysis of these annotations showing they are diverse, accurate, and efficient to produce. We also demonstrate their utility on the application of controlled image captioning. View details
    Classifier and Exemplar Synthesis for Zero-Shot Learning
    Wei-Lun Chao
    International Journal of Computer Vision, vol. 128 (2020), pp. 166-201
    Preview abstract Zero-shot learning (ZSL) enables solving a task without the need to see its examples. In this paper, we propose two ZSL frameworks that learn to synthesize parameters for novel unseen classes. First, we propose to cast the problem of ZSL as learning manifold embeddings from graphs composed of object classes, leading to a flexible approach that synthesizes “classifiers” for the unseen classes. Then, we define an auxiliary task of synthesizing “exemplars” for the unseen classes to be used as an automatic denoising mechanism for any existing ZSL approaches or as an effective ZSL model by itself. On five visual recognition benchmark datasets, we demonstrate the superior performances of our proposed frameworks in various scenarios of both conventional and generalized ZSL. Finally, we provide valuable insights through a series of empirical analyses, among which are a comparison of semantic representations on the full ImageNet benchmark as well as a comparison of metrics used in generalized ZSL. Our code and data are publicly available at https://github.com/pujols/Zero-shot-learning-journal. View details
    Preview abstract Object detection plays an important role in current solutions to vision and language tasks like image captioning and visual question answering. However, popular models like Faster R-CNN rely on a costly process of annotating ground-truths for both the bounding boxes and their corresponding semantic labels, making it less amenable as a primitive task for transfer learning. In this paper, we examine the effect of decoupling box proposal and featurization for down-stream tasks. The key insight is that this allows us to leverage a large amount of labeled annotations that were previously unavailable for standard object detection benchmarks. Empirically, we demonstrate that this leads to effective transfer learning and improved image captioning and visual question answering models, as measured on publicly-available benchmarks. View details
    No Results Found