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Hossein Esfandiari

Hossein Esfandiari

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    Preview abstract Motivated by data analysis and machine learning applications, we consider the popular high-dimensional Euclidean $k$-median and $k$-means problems. We propose a new primal-dual algorithm, inspired by the classic algorithm of Jain and Vazirani and the recent algorithm of Ahmadian et al.. Our algorithm achieves an approximation ratio of respectively 2.40... and 5.95... for Euclidean $k$-median and $k$-means improving upon the 2.60... of Ahmadian et al. and the 6.12.. of Grandoni et al.. View details
    Preview abstract Metric clustering is a fundamental primitive in machine learning with several applications for mining massive data-sets. An important example of metric clustering is the $k$-center problem. While this problem has been extensively studied in distributed settings, all previous algorithms require $\Omega(k)$ space per machine and $\Omega(n k)$ total work. In this paper, we develop the first highly scalable approximation algorithm for $k$-center clustering requiring $o(k)$ space per machine with $o(n k)$ total work. In particular, our algorithm needs $\widetilde{O}(n^{\eps})$ space per machine and $\tilde{O}(n^{1+\epsilon})$ total work, and computes an $O(\log \log \log n)$-approximation of the problem by selecting $(1+o(1))k$ centers in $O(\log \log n)$ rounds. This is achieved by introducing core-sets of truly sublinear size. View details
    Prophets, Secretaries, and Maximizing the Probability of Choosing the Best
    Brendan Lucier
    Michael Mitzenmacher
    MohammadTaghi Hajiaghayi
    AISTATS (2020) (to appear)
    Preview abstract Suppose a customer is faced with a sequence of fluctuating prices, such as for airfare or a product sold by a large online retailer. Given distributional information about what price they might face each day, how should they choose when to purchase in order to maximize the likelihood of getting the best price in retrospect? This is related to the classical secretary problem, but with values drawn from known distributions. In their pioneering work, Gilbert and Mosteller [J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 1966] showed that when the values are drawn i.i.d., there is a thresholding algorithm that selects the best value with probability approximately 0.5801. However, the more general problem with non-identical distributions has remained unsolved. In this paper, we provide an algorithm for the case of non-identical distributions that selects the maximum element with probability 1/e, and we show that this is tight. We further show that if the observations arrive in a random order, this barrier of 1/e can be broken using a static threshold algorithm, and we show that our success probability is the best possible for any single-threshold algorithm under random observation order. Moreover, we prove that one can achieve a strictly better success probability using more general multi-threshold algorithms, unlike the non-random-order case. Along the way, we show that the best achievable success probability for the random-order case matches that of the i.i.d. case, which is approximately 0.5801, under a ``no-superstars'' condition that no single distribution is very likely ex ante to generate the maximum value. We also extend our results to the problem of selecting one of the k best values. One of the main tools in our analysis is a suitable ``Poissonization'' of random order distributions, which uses Le Cam's theorem to connect the Poisson binomial distribution with the discrete Poisson distribution. This approach may be of independent interest. View details
    Preview abstract We study fundamental graph problems such as graph connectivity, minimum spanning forest (MSF), and approximate maximum (weight) matching in a distributed setting. In particular, we focus on the Adaptive Massively Parallel Computation (AMPC) model, which is a theoretical model that captures MapReduce-like computation augmented with a distributed hash table. We show the first AMPC algorithms for all of the studied problems that run in a constant number of rounds and use only O(n^ϵ) space per machine, where 0<ϵ<1. Our results improve both upon the previous results in the AMPC model, as well as the best-known results in the MPC model, which is the theoretical model underpinning many popular distributed computation frameworks, such as MapReduce, Hadoop, Beam, Pregel and Giraph. Finally, we provide an empirical comparison of the algorithms in the MPC and AMPC models in a fault-tolerant distriubted computation environment. We empirically evaluate our algorithms on a set of large real-world graphs and show that our AMPC algorithms can achieve improvements in both running time and round-complexity over optimized MPC baselines. View details
    Preview abstract Motivated by the increasing need to preserve privacy in digital devices, we introduce the on-device public-private model of computation. Our motivation comes from social-network based recommender systems in which the users want to receive recommendations based on the information available on their devices, as well as the suggestions of their social contacts, without sharing such information or contacts with the central recommendation system. Our model allows us to solve many algorithmic problems while providing absolute (deterministic) guarantees of the privacy of on-device data and the user's contacts. In fact, we ensure that the private data and private contacts are never revealed to the central system. Our restrictive model of computation presents several interesting algorithmic challenges because any computation based on private information and contacts must be performed on local devices of limited capabilities. Despite these challenges, under realistic assumptions of inter-device communication, we show several efficient algorithms for fundamental data mining and machine learning problems, ranging from k-means clustering to heavy hitters. We complement this analysis with strong impossibility results for efficient private algorithms without allowing inter-device communication. In our experimental evaluation, we show that our private algorithms provide results almost as accurate as those of the non-private ones while speeding up the on-device computations by orders of magnitude. View details
    Seeding with Costly Network Information
    Dean Eckles
    Elchanan Mossel
    M. Amin Rahimian
    ACM Conference on Economics and Computation (2019), pp. 421-422
    Preview abstract Seeding the most influential individuals based on the contact structure can substantially enhance the extent of a spread over the social network. Most of the influence maximization literature assumes the knowledge of the entire network graph. However, in practice, obtaining full knowledge of the network structure is very costly. We propose polynomial-time algorithms that provide almost tight approximation guarantees using a bounded number of queries to the graph structure. We also provide impossibility results to lower bound the query complexity and show tightness of our guarantees. View details
    Preview abstract Computing approximate nearest neighbors in high dimensional spaces is a central problem in large-scale data mining with a wide range of applications in machine learning and data science. A popular and effective technique in computing nearest neighbors approximately is the Locality-Sensitive Hashing (LSH) scheme. In this paper, we aim to develop LSH schemes for distance functions that measure the distance between two probability distributions, particularly for f-divergences as well as a generalization to capture mutual information loss. First, we provide a general framework to design LHS schemes for f-divergence distance functions, and develop LSH schemes for the generalized Jensen-Shannon divergence and triangular discrimination in this framework. We show a two-sided approximation result for approximation of the generalized Jensen-Shannon divergence by the Hellinger distance, which may be of independent interest. Next, we show a general method of reducing the problem of design an LSH scheme for a Kreın kernel (which can be expressed as the difference of two positive definite kernels) to the problem of maximum inner product search. We exemplify this method by applying it to the mutual information loss divergence, due to its several important applications such as model compression. View details
    Online Pandora Boxes and Bandits
    MohammadTaghi Hajiaghayi
    Brendan Lucier
    Michael Mitzenmacher
    (2019)
    Preview abstract We consider online variations of the Pandora’s box problem [Weitzman 79], a standard model for understanding issues related to the cost of acquiring information for decision-making. Our problem generalizes both the classic Pandora’s box problem and the prophet inequality framework. Boxes are presented online, each with a random value and cost drawn jointly from some known distribution. Pandora chooses online whether to open each box given its cost, and then chooses irrevocably whether to keep the revealed prize or pass on it. We aim for approximation algorithms against adversaries that can choose the largest prize over any opened box, and use optimal offline policies to decide which boxes to open (without knowledge of the value inside). We consider variations where Pandora can collect multiple prizes subject to feasibility constraints, such as cardinality, matroid, or knapsack constraints. We also consider variations related to classic multi-armed bandit problems from reinforcement learning. Our results use a reduction-based framework where we separate the issues of the cost of acquiring information from the online decision process of which prizes to keep. Our work shows that in many scenarios, Pandora can achieve a good approximation to the best possible performance. View details
    Preview abstract In modern machine learning tasks, the presence of categorical features with extremely large vocabularies is a reality. This becomes a bottleneck when using an ML model, which generally grows at least linearly with the vocabulary size, affecting the memory, training and inference costs, as well as overfitting risk. In this work, we seek to compress the vocabulary by maximizing the mutual information between the compressed categorical feature and the target binary labels. We note the relationship of this problem to that of quantization in a discrete memoryless channel, where there exists a quadratic-time algorithm to solve the problem. Unfortunately, such an algorithm does not scale to data sets with massive vocabularies and, in this paper, we develop a distributed quasi-linear O(n log n) algorithm with provable approximation guarantees. We first observe that although entropy is a submodular function, this is not the case for mutual information between a categorical feature and label. To tackle this problem, we define a set function over a different space, which still contains the optimal solution, and prove this function is submodular. We also provide a query oracle to the submodular function that runs in amortized logarithmic time, and is easy to compute in a distributed fashion. Combining these results with a greedy algorithm allows us to achieve a (1-1/e)-approximation in quasi-linear time. Finally, we compare our proposed algorithm to several existing approaches using the large-scale Criteo learning task and demonstrate better performance in retaining mutual information and also verify the learning performance of the compressed vocabulary. View details
    Preview abstract The k-core decomposition is a fundamental primitive in many machine learning and data mining applications. We present the first distributed and the first streaming algorithms to compute and maintain an approximate k-core decomposition with provable guarantees. Our algorithms achieve rigorous bounds on space complexity while bounding the number of passes or number of rounds of computation. We do so by presenting a new powerful sketching technique for k-core decomposition, and then by showing it can be computed efficiently in both streaming and MapReduce models. Finally, we confirm the effectiveness of our sketching technique empirically on a number of publicly available graphs. View details
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