Pushmeet Kohli

Pushmeet Kohli is a principal scientist and research team leader at DeepMind. Before joining DeepMind, Pushmeet was the director of research at the Cognition group at Microsoft. During his 10 years at Microsoft, Pushmeet worked in Microsoft labs in Seattle, Cambridge and Bangalore and took a number of roles and duties including being technical advisor to Rick Rashid, the Chief Research Officer of Microsoft. Pushmeet’s research revolves around Intelligent Systems and Computational Sciences, and he publishes in the fields of Machine Learning, Computer Vision, Information Retrieval, and Game Theory. His current research interests include 3D Reconstruction and Rendering, Probabilistic Programming, Interpretable and Verifiable Knowledge Representations from Deep Models. He is also interested in Conversation agents for Task completion, Machine learning systems for Healthcare and 3D rendering and interaction for augmented and virtual reality. Pushmeet has won a number of awards and prizes for his research. His PhD thesis, titled "Minimizing Dynamic and Higher Order Energy Functions using Graph Cuts", was the winner of the British Machine Vision Association’s “Sullivan Doctoral Thesis Award”, and was a runner-up for the British Computer Society's “Distinguished Dissertation Award”. Pushmeet’s papers have appeared in Computer Vision (ICCV, CVPR, ECCV, PAMI, IJCV, CVIU, BMVC, DAGM), Machine Learning, Robotics and AI (NIPS, ICML, AISTATS, AAAI, AAMAS, UAI, ISMAR), Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH, Eurographics), and HCI (CHI, UIST) conferences. They have won awards in ICVGIP 2006, 2010, ECCV 2010, ISMAR 2011, TVX 2014, CHI 2014, WWW 2014 and CVPR 2015. His research has also been the subject of a number of articles in popular media outlets such as Forbes, Wired, BBC, New Scientist and MIT Technology Review. Pushmeet is a part of the Association for Computing Machinery's (ACM) Distinguished Speaker Program.
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    Generative models improve fairness of medical classifiers under distribution shifts
    Ira Ktena
    Olivia Wiles
    Isabela Albuquerque
    Sylvestre-Alvise Rebuffi
    Ryutaro Tanno
    Danielle Belgrave
    Taylan Cemgil
    Nature Medicine(2024)
    Preview abstract Domain generalization is a ubiquitous challenge for machine learning in healthcare. Model performance in real-world conditions might be lower than expected because of discrepancies between the data encountered during deployment and development. Underrepresentation of some groups or conditions during model development is a common cause of this phenomenon. This challenge is often not readily addressed by targeted data acquisition and ‘labeling’ by expert clinicians, which can be prohibitively expensive or practically impossible because of the rarity of conditions or the available clinical expertise. We hypothesize that advances in generative artificial intelligence can help mitigate this unmet need in a steerable fashion, enriching our training dataset with synthetic examples that address shortfalls of underrepresented conditions or subgroups. We show that diffusion models can automatically learn realistic augmentations from data in a label-efficient manner. We demonstrate that learned augmentations make models more robust and statistically fair in-distribution and out of distribution. To evaluate the generality of our approach, we studied three distinct medical imaging contexts of varying difficulty: (1) histopathology, (2) chest X-ray and (3) dermatology images. Complementing real samples with synthetic ones improved the robustness of models in all three medical tasks and increased fairness by improving the accuracy of clinical diagnosis within underrepresented groups, especially out of distribution. View details
    Enhancing diagnostic accuracy of medical AI systems via selective deferral to clinicians
    Dj Dvijotham
    Melih Barsbey
    Sumedh Ghaisas
    Robert Stanforth
    Nick Pawlowski
    Patricia Strachan
    Zahra Ahmed
    Yoram Bachrach
    Laura Culp
    Mayank Daswani
    Jan Freyberg
    Atilla Kiraly
    Timo Kohlberger
    Scott Mayer McKinney
    Basil Mustafa
    Krzysztof Geras
    Jan Witowski
    Zhi Zhen Qin
    Jacob Creswell
    Shravya Shetty
    Terry Spitz
    Taylan Cemgil
    Nature Medicine(2023)
    Preview abstract AI systems trained using deep learning have been shown to achieve expert-level identification of diseases in multiple medical imaging settings1,2. While these results are impressive, they don’t accurately reflect the impact of deployment of such systems in a clinical context. Due to the safety-critical nature of this domain and the fact that AI systems are not perfect and can make inaccurate assessments, they are predominantly deployed as assistive tools for clinical experts3. Although clinicians routinely discuss the diagnostic nuances of medical images with each other, weighing human diagnostic confidence against that of an AI system remains a major unsolved barrier to collaborative decision-making4. Furthermore, it has been observed that diagnostic AI models have complementary strengths and weaknesses compared to clinical experts. Yet, complementarity and the assessment of relative confidence between the members of a diagnostic team has remained largely unexploited in how AI systems are currently used in medical settings5. In this paper, we study the behavior of a team composed of diagnostic AI model(s) and clinician(s) in diagnosing disease. To go beyond the performance level of a standalone AI system, we develop a novel selective deferral algorithm that can learn to decide when to rely on a diagnostic AI model and when to defer to a clinical expert. Using this algorithm, we demonstrate that the composite AI+human system has enhanced accuracy (both sensitivity and specificity) relative to a human-only or an AI-only baseline. We decouple the development of the deferral AI model from training of the underlying diagnostic AI model(s). Development of the deferral AI model only requires i) the predictions of a model(s) on a tuning set of medical images (separate from the diagnostic AI models’ training data), ii) the diagnoses made by clinicians on these images and iii) the ground truth disease labels corresponding to those images. Our extensive analysis shows that the selective deferral (SD) system exceeds the performance of either clinicians or AI alone in multiple clinical settings: breast and lung cancer screening. For breast cancer screening, double-reading with arbitration (two readers interpreting each mammogram invoking an arbitrator if needed) is a “gold standard” for performance, never previously exceeded using AI6. The SD system exceeds the accuracy of double-reading with arbitration in a large representative UK screening program (25% reduction in false positives despite equivalent true-positive detection and 66% reduction in the requirement for clinicians to read an image), as well as exceeding the performance of a standalone state-of-art AI system (40% reduction in false positives with equivalent detection of true positives). In a large US dataset the SD system exceeds the accuracy of single-reading by board-certified radiologists and a standalone state-of-art AI system (32% reduction in false positives despite equivalent detection of true positives and 55% reduction in the clinician workload required). The SD system further outperforms both clinical experts alone, and AI alone for the detection of lung cancer in low-dose Computed Tomography images from a large national screening study, with 11% reduction in false positives while maintaining sensitivity given 93% reduction in clinician workload required. Furthermore, the SD system allows controllable trade-offs between sensitivity and specificity and can be tuned to target either specificity or sensitivity as desired for a particular clinical application, or a combination of both. The system generalizes to multiple distribution shifts, retaining superiority to both the AI system alone and human experts alone. We demonstrate that the SD system retains performance gains even on clinicians not present in the training data for the deferral AI. Furthermore, we test the SD system on a new population where the standalone AI system’s performance significantly degrades. We showcase the few-shot adaptation capability of the SD system by demonstrating that the SD system can obtain superiority to both the standalone AI system and the clinician on the new population after being trained on only 40 cases from the new population. Our comprehensive assessment demonstrates that a selective deferral system could significantly improve clinical outcomes in multiple medical imaging applications, paving the way for higher performance clinical AI systems that can leverage the complementarity between clinical experts and medical AI tools. View details
    Consensus, dissensus and synergy between clinicians and specialist foundation models in radiology report generation
    Ryutaro Tanno
    David Barrett
    Sumedh Ghaisas
    Sumanth Dathathri
    Abi See
    Johannes Welbl
    Karan Singhal
    Rhys May
    Roy Lee
    SiWai Man
    Zahra Ahmed
    Sara Mahdavi
    Joelle Barral
    Ali Eslami
    Danielle Belgrave
    Shravya Shetty
    Po-Sen Huang
    Ira Ktena
    Preview abstract Radiology reports are an instrumental part of modern medicine, informing key clinical decisions such as diagnosis and treatment. The worldwide shortage of radiologists, however, restricts access to expert care and imposes heavy workloads, contributing to avoidable errors and delays in report delivery. While recent progress in automated report generation with vision-language models offer clear potential in ameliorating the situation, the path to real-world adoption has been stymied by the challenge of evaluating the clinical quality of AI-generated reports. In this study, we build a state-of-the-art report generation system for chest radiographs, Flamingo-CXR, by fine-tuning a well-known vision-language foundation model on radiology data. To evaluate the quality of the AI-generated reports, a group of 16 certified radiologists provide detailed evaluations of AI-generated and human written reports for chest X-rays from an intensive care setting in the United States and an inpatient setting in India. At least one radiologist (out of two per case) preferred the AI report to the ground truth report in over 60% of cases for both datasets. Amongst the subset of AI-generated reports that contain errors, the most frequently cited reasons were related to the location and finding, whereas for human written reports, most mistakes were related to severity and finding. This disparity suggested potential complementarity between our AI system and human experts, prompting us to develop an assistive scenario in which Flamingo-CXR generates a first-draft report, which is subsequently revised by a clinician. This is the first demonstration of clinician-AI collaboration for report writing, and the resultant reports are assessed to be equivalent or preferred by at least one radiologist to reports written by experts alone in 80% of in-patient cases and 60% of intensive care cases. View details
    Reinforced Genetic Algorithm Learning for Optimizing Computation Graphs
    Aditya Paliwal
    Felix Gimeno
    Vinod Gopal Nair
    Yujia Li
    Miles Lubin
    International Conference on Learning Representations (ICLR)(2020)
    Preview abstract We present a deep reinforcement learning approach to minimizing the execution cost of neural network computation graphs in an optimizing compiler. Unlike earlier learning-based works that require training the optimizer on the same graph to be optimized, we propose a learning approach that trains an optimizer offline and then generalizes to previously unseen graphs without further training. This allows our approach to produce high-quality execution decisions on real-world TensorFlow graphs in seconds instead of hours. We consider two optimization tasks for computation graphs: minimizing running time and peak memory usage. In comparison to an extensive set of baselines, our approach achieves significant improvements over classical and other learning-based methods on these two tasks. View details
    Learning Transferable Graph Exploration
    Hanjun Dai
    Yujia Li
    Chenglong Wang
    Rishabh Singh
    Po-Sen Huang
    Neural Processing Information Systems (NeurIPS)(2019)
    Preview abstract This paper considers the problem of efficient exploration of unseen environments, a key challenge in AI. We propose a `learning to explore' framework where we learn a policy from a distribution of environments. At test time, presented with an unseen environment from the same distribution, the policy aims to generalize the exploration strategy to visit the maximum number of unique states in a limited number of steps. We particularly focus on environments with graph-structured state-spaces that are encountered in many important real-world applications like software testing and map building. We formulate this task as a reinforcement learning problem where the `exploration' agent is rewarded for transitioning to previously unseen environment states and employ a graph-structured memory to encode the agent's past trajectory. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach is extremely effective for exploration of spatial maps; and when applied on the challenging problems of coverage-guided software-testing of domain-specific programs and real-world mobile applications, it outperforms methods that have been hand-engineered by human experts. View details
    Programmatically Interpretable Reinforcement Learning
    Abhinav Verma
    Vijayraghavan Murali
    Rishabh Singh
    Swarat Chaudhuri
    Preview abstract We present a reinforcement learning framework, called Programmatically Interpretable Reinforcement Learning (PIRL), that is designed to generate interpretable and verifiable agent policies. Unlike the popular Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) paradigm, which represents policies by neural networks, PIRL represents policies using a high-level, domain-specific programming language. Such programmatic policies have the benefits of being more easily interpreted than neural networks, and being amenable to verification by symbolic methods. We propose a new method, called Neurally Directed Program Search (NDPS), for solving the challenging nonsmooth optimization problem of finding a programmatic policy with maximal reward. NDPS works by first learning a neural policy network using DRL, and then performing a local search over programmatic policies that seeks to minimize a distance from this neural “oracle”. We evaluate NDPS on the task of learning to drive a simulated car in the TORCS car-racing environment. We demonstrate that NDPS is able to discover human-readable policies that pass some significant performance bars. We also show that PIRL policies can have smoother trajectories, and can be more easily transferred to environments not encountered during training, than corresponding policies discovered by DRL. View details
    Relational inductive biases, deep learning, and graph networks
    Peter Battaglia
    Jessica Blake Chandler Hamrick
    Victor Bapst
    Alvaro Sanchez
    Vinicius Zambaldi
    Mateusz Malinowski
    Andrea Tacchetti
    David Raposo
    Adam Santoro
    Ryan Faulkner
    Caglar Gulcehre
    Francis Song
    Andy Ballard
    Justin Gilmer
    George E. Dahl
    Ashish Vaswani
    Kelsey Allen
    Charles Nash
    Victoria Jayne Langston
    Chris Dyer
    Nicolas Heess
    Daan Wierstra
    Matt Botvinick
    Yujia Li
    Razvan Pascanu
    Preview abstract The purpose of this paper is to explore relational inductive biases in modern AI, especially deep learning, describing a rough taxonomy of existing approaches, and introducing a common mathematical framework for expressing and unifying various approaches. The key theme running through this work is structure—how the world is structured, and how the structure of different computational strategies determines their strengths and weaknesses. View details
    Preview abstract As a step towards developing zero-shot task generalization capabilities in reinforcement learning (RL), this paper introduces a new RL problem where the agent should learn to execute sequences of instructions after learning useful skills that solve subtasks. In this problem, we consider two types of generalizations: to previously unseen instructions and to longer sequences of instructions. For generalization over unseen instructions, we propose a new analogy-making objective which encourages learning correspondences between similar subtasks using neural networks. For generalization over sequential instructions, we present a hierarchical deep RL architecture where a meta controller learns to use the acquired skills while executing the instructions. To deal with delayed reward, we propose a new neural architecture in the meta controller that learns when to update the subtask, which makes learning more stable. Experimental results on a stochastic 3D visual domain show that analogy-making can be successfully applied to various generalization scenarios, and our hierarchical architecture generalizes well to longer instructions as well as unseen instructions. View details
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