In this paper, we demonstrate that information retrieval can be accomplished with a single Transformer, in which all information about the corpus is encoded in the parameters of the model. To this end, we introduce the Differentiable Search Index (DSI), a new paradigm that learns a text-to-text model that maps string queries directly to relevant docids; in other words, a DSI model answers queries directly using only its parameters, dramatically simplifying the whole retrieval process. We study variations in how documents and their identifiers are represented, variations in training procedures, and the interplay between models and corpus sizes. Experiments demonstrate that given appropriate design choices, DSI significantly outperforms strong baselines such as dual encoder models. Moreover, DSI demonstrates strong generalization capabilities, outperforming a BM25 baseline in a zero-shot setup.View details
State space models have shown to be effective for modeling long range dependencies, specifically on sequence classification tasks. In this paper we focus on autoregressive sequence modeling over natural language, Github code and ArXiv mathematics articles. Based on a few recent developments around effectiveness of gated activation functions, we propose a new layer, named Gated State Space (GSS) layer. We show that GSS trains significantly faster than the diagonal version of S4 (i.e. DSS) on TPUs, is simple to implement and fairly competitive with several well-tuned Transformer-based baselines. Finally, we show that interleaving traditional Transformer blocks with GSS improves performance even further.View details
We construct an experimental setup in which changing the scale of initialization strongly impacts the implicit regularization induced by SGD, interpolating from good generalization performance to completely memorizing the training set while making little progress on the test set. Moreover, we find that the extent and manner in which generalization ability is affected depends on the activation and loss function used, with sin activation demonstrating extreme memorization. In the case of the homogeneous ReLU activation, we show that this behavior can be attributed to the loss function. Our empirical investigation reveals that increasing the scale of initialization correlates with misalignment of representations and gradients across examples in the same class. This insight allows us to devise an alignment measure over gradients and representations which can capture this phenomenon. We demonstrate that our alignment measure correlates with generalization of deep models trained on image classification tasks.View details
The Touchdown dataset (Chen et al., 2019) provides instructions by human annotators for navigation through New York City streets and for resolving spatial descriptions at a given location. To enable the wider research community to work effectively with the Touchdown tasks, we are publicly releasing the 29k raw Street View panoramas needed for Touchdown. We follow the process used for the StreetLearn data release (Mirowski et al., 2019) to check panoramas for personally identifiable information and blur them as necessary. These have been added to the StreetLearn dataset and can be obtained via the same process as used previously for StreetLearn. We also provide a reference implementation for both of the Touchdown tasks: vision and language navigation (VLN) and spatial description resolution (SDR). We compare our model results to those given in Chen et al. (2019) and show that the panoramas we have added to StreetLearn fully support both Touchdown tasks and can be used effectively for further research and comparison.View details
Vision-and-Language Navigation (VLN) tasks such as Room-to-Room (R2R) require machine agents to interpret natural language instructions and learn to act in visually realistic environments to achieve navigation goals. The overall task requires competence in several perception problems: successful agents combine spatio-temporal, vision and language understanding to produce appropriate action sequences. Our approach adapts pre-trained vision and language representations to relevant in-domain tasks making them more effective for VLN. Specifically, the representations are adapted to solve both a cross-modal sequence alignment and sequence coherence task. In the sequence alignment task, the model determines whether an instruction corresponds to a sequence of visual frames. In the sequence coherence task, the model determines whether the perceptual sequences are predictive sequentially in the instruction-conditioned latent space. By transferring the domain-adapted representations, we improve competitive agents in R2R as measured by the success rate weighted by path length (SPL) metric.View details
Proceedings of the Combined Workshop on Spatial Language Understanding (SpLU) and Grounded Communication for Robotics (RoboNLP) (2019)
Vision-and-Language Navigation (VLN) is a natural language grounding task where agents have to interpret natural language instructions in the context of visual scenes in a dynamic environment to achieve prescribed navigation goals. Successful agents must have the ability to parse natural language of varying linguistic styles, ground them in potentially unfamiliar scenes, plan and react with ambiguous environmental feedback. Generalization ability is limited by the amount of human annotated data. In particular, paired vision-language sequence data is expensive to collect. We develop a discriminator that evaluates how well an instruction explains a given path in VLN task using multi-modal alignment.
Our study reveals that only a small fraction of the high-quality augmented data from Fried et al. (2018), as scored by our discriminator, is useful for training VLN agents with similar performance on previously unseen environments. We also show that a VLN agent warm-started with pre-trained components from the discriminator outperforms the benchmark success rates of 35.5 by 10% relative measure on previously unseen environments.View details
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