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Pieter-jan Kindermans

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    Preview abstract We present Phenaki, a model capable of realistic video synthesis given a sequence of textual prompts. Generating videos from text is particularly challenging due to the computational cost, limited quantities of high quality text-video data and variable length of videos. To address these issues, we introduce a new causal model for learning video representation which compresses the video to a small discrete tokens representation. This tokenizer is auto-regressive in time, which allows it to work with variable-length videos. To generate video tokens from text we are using a bidirectional masked transformer conditioned on pre-computed text tokens. The generated video tokens are subsequently de-tokenized to create the actual video. To address data issues, we demonstrate how joint training on a large corpus of image-text pairs as well as a smaller number of video-text examples can result in generalization beyond what is available in the video datasets. Compared to the previous video generation methods, Phenaki can generate arbitrary long videos conditioned on a sequence of prompts (i.e. time variable text or story in open domain). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a paper studies generating videos from time variable prompts. View details
    TabNAS: Rejection Sampling for Neural Architecture Search on Tabular Datasets
    Gabriel M. Bender
    Hanxiao Liu
    Madeleine Udell
    Yifeng Lu
    Da Huang
    Neural Information Processing Systems (2022)
    Preview abstract The best neural architecture for a given machine learning problem depends on many factors: not only the complexity and structure of the dataset, but also on resource constraints including latency, compute, energy consumption, etc. Neural architecture search (NAS) for tabular datasets is an important but under-explored problem. Previous NAS algorithms designed for image search spaces incorporate resource constraints directly into the reinforcement learning (RL) rewards. However, for NAS on tabular datasets, this protocol often discovers suboptimal architectures. This paper develops TabNAS, a new and more effective approach to handle resource constraints in tabular NAS using an RL controller motivated by the idea of rejection sampling. TabNAS immediately discards any architecture that violates the resource constraints without training or learning from that architecture. TabNAS uses a Monte-Carlo-based correction to the RL policy gradient update to account for this extra filtering step. Results on several tabular datasets demonstrate the superiority of TabNAS over previous reward-shaping methods: it finds better models that obey the constraints. View details
    BigNAS: Scaling Up Neural Architecture Search with Big Single-Stage Models
    Jiahui Yu
    Hanxiao Liu
    Gabriel M. Bender
    Thomas Huang
    Xiaodan Song
    Ruoming Pang
    European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV) (2020)
    Preview abstract Neural architecture search (NAS) has shown promising results discovering models that are both accurate and fast. For NAS, training a one-shot model has become a popular strategy to rank the relative quality of different architectures (child models) using a single set of shared weights. However, while one-shot model weights can effectively rank different network architectures, the absolute accuracies from these shared weights are typically far below those obtained from stand-alone training. To compensate, existing methods assume that the weights must be retrained, finetuned, or otherwise post-processed after the search is completed. These steps significantly increase the compute requirements and complexity of the architecture search and model deployment. In this work, we propose BigNAS, an approach that challenges the conventional wisdom that post-processing of the weights is necessary to get good prediction accuracies. Without extra retraining or post-processing steps, we are able to train a single set of shared weights on ImageNet and use these weights to obtain child models whose sizes range from 200 to 1000 MFLOPs. Our discovered model family, BigNASModels, achieve top-1 accuracies ranging from 76.5% to 80.9%, surpassing state-of-the-art models in this range including EfficientNets and Once-for-All networks without extra retraining or post-processing. We present ablative study and analysis to further understand the proposed BigNASModels. View details
    Preview abstract Estimating the influence of a given feature to a model prediction is challenging. We introduce ROAR, RemOve And Retrain, a benchmark to evaluate the accuracy of interpretability methods that estimate input feature importance in deep neural networks. We remove a fraction of input features deemed to be most important according to each estimator and measure the change to the model accuracy upon retraining. The most accurate estimator will identify inputs as important whose removal causes the most damage to model performance relative to all other estimators. This evaluation produces thought-provoking results -- we find that several estimators are less accurate than a random assignment of feature importance. However, averaging a set of squared noisy estimators (a variant of a technique proposed by Smilkov et al. (2017)), leads to significant gains in accuracy for each method considered and far outperforms such a random guess. View details
    Preview abstract There is growing interest in automating neural network architecture design. Existing architecture search methods can be computationally expensive, requiring thousands of different architectures to be trained from scratch. Recent work has explored weight sharing across models to amortize the cost of training. Although previous methods reduced the cost of architecture search by orders of magnitude, they remain complex, requiring hypernetworks or reinforcement learning controllers. We aim to understand weight sharing for one-shot architecture search. With careful experimental analysis, we show that it is possible to efficiently identify promising architectures from a complex search space without either hypernetworks or RL. View details
    Preview abstract It is common practice to decay the learning rate. Here we show one can usually obtain the same learning curve on both training and test sets by instead increasing the batch size during training. This procedure is successful for stochastic gradient descent (SGD), SGD with momentum, Nesterov momentum, and Adam. It reaches equivalent test accuracies after the same number of training epochs, but with fewer parameter updates, leading to greater parallelism and shorter training times. We can further reduce the number of parameter updates by increasing the learning rate $\epsilon$ and scaling the batch size $B \propto \epsilon$. Finally, one can increase the momentum coefficient $m$ and scale $B \propto 1/(1-m)$, although this tends to slightly reduce the test accuracy. Crucially, our techniques allow us to repurpose existing training schedules for large batch training with no hyper-parameter tuning. We train Inception-ResNet-V2 on ImageNet to $77\%$ validation accuracy in under 2500 parameter updates, efficiently utilizing training batches of 65536 images. View details
    Preview abstract DeConvNet, Guided BackProp, LRP, were invented to better understand deep neural networks. We show that these methods do not produce the theoretically correct explanation for a linear model. Yet they are used on multi-layer networks with millions of parameters. This is a cause for concern since linear models are simple neural networks. We argue that explanation methods for neural nets should work reliably in the limit of simplicity, the linear models. Based on our analysis of linear models we propose a generalization that yields two explanation techniques (PatternNet and PatternAttribution) that are theoretically sound for linear models and produce improved explanations for deep networks. View details
    The (Un)reliability of Saliency methods
    Sara Hooker
    Julius Adebayo
    Maximilian Alber
    Kristof T. Schütt
    Sven Dähne
    NIPS Workshop (2017)
    Preview abstract Saliency methods aim to explain the predictions of deep neural networks. These methods lack reliability when the explanation is sensitive to factors that do not contribute to the model prediction. We use a simple and common pre-processing step ---adding a constant shift to the input data--- to show that a transformation with no effect on the model can cause numerous methods to incorrectly attribute. In order to guarantee reliability, we posit that methods should fulfill input invariance, the requirement that a saliency method mirror the sensitivity of the model with respect to transformations of the input. We show, through several examples, that saliency methods that do not satisfy input invariance result in misleading attribution. View details
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