Mingxing Tan

Mingxing Tan

Authored Publications
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    MoViNets: Mobile Video Networks for Efficient Video Recognition
    Dan Kondratyuk
    Liangzhe Yuan
    Yandong Li
    Li Zhang
    Boqing Gong
    CVPR 2021(2021)
    Preview abstract We present Mobile Video Networks (MoViNets), a family of computation and memory efficient video networks that can operate on streaming video for online inference. 3D convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are accurate at video recognition but require large computation and memory budgets and do not support online inference, making them difficult to work on mobile devices. We propose a three-step approach to improve computational efficiency while substantially reducing the peak memory usage of 3D CNNs. First, we design a video network search space and employ neural architecture search to generate efficient and diverse 3D CNN architectures. Second, we introduce the Stream Buffer technique that decouples memory from video clip duration, allowing 3D CNNs to embed arbitrary-length streaming video sequences for both training and inference with a small constant memory footprint. Third, we propose a simple ensembling technique to improve accuracy further without sacrificing efficiency. These three progressive techniques allow MoViNets to achieve state-of-the-art accuracy and efficiency on the Kinetics, Moments in Time, and Charades video action recognition datasets. For instance, MoViNet-A5-Stream achieves the same accuracy as X3D-XL on Kinetics 600 while requiring 80% fewer FLOPs and 65% less memory. Code is available at https://github.com/tensorflow/models/tree/master/official/projects/movinet. View details
    AutoHAS: Efficient Hyperparameter and Architecture Search
    Xuanyi Dong
    Adams Wei Yu
    Daiyi Peng
    Bogdan Gabrys
    Workshop on Neural Architecture Search at International Conference on Learning Representations (NAS@ICLR)(2021)
    Preview abstract Efficient hyperparameter or architecture search methods have shown remarkable results, but each of them is only applicable to searching for either hyperparameters (HPs) or architectures. In this work, we propose a unified pipeline, AutoHAS, to efficiently search for both architectures and hyperparameters. AutoHAS learns to alternately update the shared network weights and a reinforcement learning (RL) controller, which learns the probability distribution for the architecture candidates and HP candidates. A temporary weight is introduced to store the updated weight from the selected HPs (by the controller), and a validation accuracy based on this temporary weight serves as a reward to update the controller. In experiments, we show AutoHAS is efficient and generalizable to different search spaces, baselines and datasets. In particular, AutoHAS can improve the accuracy over popular network architectures, such as ResNet and EfficientNet, on CIFAR-10/100, ImageNet, and four more other datasets. View details
    EfficientNetV2: Smaller Models and Faster Training
    International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML)(2021)
    Preview abstract This paper introduces EfficientNetV2, a new family of convolutional networks that have faster training speed and better parameter efficiency than previous models. To develop these models, we use a combination of training-aware neural architecture search and scaling, to jointly optimize training speed and parameter efficiency. The models were searched from the search space enriched with new ops such as Fused-MBConv. Our experiments show that EfficientNetV2 models train much faster than state-of-the-art models while being up to 6.8x smaller. Our training can be further sped up by progressively increasing the image size during training, but it often causes a drop in accuracy. To compensate for this accuracy drop, we propose an improved method of progressive learning, which adaptively adjusts regularization (e.g. data augmentation) along with image size. With progressive learning, our EfficientNetV2 significantly outperforms previous models on ImageNet and CIFAR/Cars/Flowers datasets. By pretraining on the same ImageNet21k, our EfficientNetV2 achieves 87.3% top-1 accuracy on ImageNet ILSVRC2012, outperforming the recent ViT by 2.0% accuracy while training 5x-11x faster using the same computing resources. Code is available at https://github.com/google/automl/tree/master/efficientnetv2. View details
    Searching for Fast Models on Datacenter Accelerators
    Sheng Li
    Ruoming Pang
    Andrew Li
    Norm Jouppi
    Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition(2021)
    Preview abstract Neural Architecture Search (NAS), together with model scaling, has shown remarkable progress in designing high accuracy and fast convolutional architecture families. However, as neither NAS nor model scaling considers sufficient hardware architecture details, they do not take full advantage of the emerging datacenter (DC) accelerators. In this paper, we search for fast and accurate CNN model families for efficient inference on DC accelerators. We first analyze DC accelerators and find that existing CNNs suffer from insufficient operational intensity, parallelism, and execution efficiency and exhibit FLOPs-latency nonproportionality. These insights let us create a DC-accelerator-optimized search space, with space-to-depth, space-to-batch, hybrid fused convolution structures with vanilla and depthwise convolutions, and block-wise activation functions. We further propose a latency-aware compound scaling (LACS), the first multi-objective compound scaling method optimizing both accuracy and latency. Our LACS discovers that network depth should grow much faster than image size and network width, which is quite different from the observations from previous compound scaling. With the new search space and LACS, our search and scaling on datacenter accelerators results in a new model series named EfficientNet-X. EfficientNet-X is up to more than 2X faster than EfficientNet (a model series with state-of-the-art trade-off on FLOPs and accuracy) on TPUv3 and GPUv100, with comparable accuracy. EfficientNet-X is also up to 7X faster than recent RegNet and ResNeSt on TPUv3 and GPUv100. Source code is at https://github.com/tensorflow/tpu/tree/master/models/official/efficientnet/tpu View details
    When Ensembling Smaller Models is More Efficient than Single Large Models
    Dan Kondratyuk
    Boqing Gong
    Visual Understanding by Learning from Web Data 2020, CVPR(2020)
    Preview abstract Ensembling is a simple and popular technique for boosting evaluation performance by training multiple models (e.g., with different initializations) and aggregating their predictions. This approach is commonly reserved for the largest models, as it is commonly held that increasing the model size provides a more substantial reduction in error than ensembling smaller models. However, we show results from experiments on CIFAR-10 and ImageNet that ensembles can outperform single models with both higher accuracy and requiring fewer total FLOPs to compute, even when those individual models' weights and hyperparameters are highly optimized. Furthermore, this gap in improvement widens as models become large. This presents an interesting observation that output diversity in ensembling can often be more efficient than training larger models, especially when the models approach the size of what their dataset can foster. Instead of using the common practice of tuning a single large model, one can use ensembles as a more flexible trade-off between a model's inference speed and accuracy. This also potentially eases hardware design, e.g., an easier way to parallelize the model across multiple workers for real-time or distributed inference. View details
    Preview abstract Learning to represent videos is a very challenging task both algorithmically and computationally. Standard video CNN architectures have been designed by directly extending architectures devised for image understanding to include the time dimension, using modules such as 3D convolutions, or by using two-stream design to capture both appearance and motion in videos. We interpret a video CNN as a collection of multi-stream convolutional blocks connected to each other, and propose the approach of automatically finding neural architectures with better connectivity and spatio-temporal interactions for video understanding. This is done by evolving a population of overly-connected architectures guided by connection weight learning. Architectures combining representations that abstract different input types (i.e., RGB and optical flow) at multiple temporal resolutions are searched for, allowing different types or sources of information to interact with each other. Our method, referred to as AssembleNet, outperforms prior approaches on public video datasets, in some cases by a great margin. We obtain 58.6% mAP on Charades and 34.27% accuracy on Moments-in-Time. View details
    PyGlove: Symbolic Programming for Automated Machine Learning
    Daiyi Peng
    Xuanyi Dong
    Yifeng Lu
    Hanxiao Liu
    Gabriel Bender
    Adam Kraft
    Chen Liang
    Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS)(2020)
    Preview abstract Neural networks are sensitive to hyper-parameter and architecture choices. Automated Machine Learning (AutoML) is a promising paradigm for automating these choices. Current ML software libraries, however, are quite limited in handling the dynamic interactions among the components of AutoML. For example, efficientNAS algorithms, such as ENAS and DARTS, typically require an implementation coupling between the search space and search algorithm, the two key components in AutoML. Furthermore, implementing a complex search flow, such as searching architectures within a loop of searching hardware configurations, is difficult. To summarize, changing the search space, search algorithm, or search flow in current ML libraries usually requires a significant change in the program logic. In this paper, we introduce a new way of programming AutoML based on symbolic programming. Under this paradigm, ML programs are mutable, thus can be manipulated easily by another program. As a result, AutoML can be reformulated as an automated process of symbolic manipulation. With this formulation, we decouple the triangle of the search algorithm, the search space and the child program. This decoupling makes it easy to change the search space and search algorithm (without and with weight sharing), as well as to add search capabilities to existing code and implement complex search flows. We then introduce PyGlove, a new Python library that implements this paradigm. Through case studies on ImageNet and NAS-Bench-101, we show that with PyGlove users can easily convert a static program into a search space, quickly iterate on the search spaces and search algorithms, and craft complex search flows to achieve better results. View details
    Preview abstract Convolutional neural networks typically encode an input image into a series of intermediate features with decreasing resolutions. While this structure is suited to classification tasks, it does not perform well for tasks requiring simultaneous recognition and localization (e.g., object detection). The encoder-decoder architectures are proposed to resolve this by applying a decoder network onto a backbone model designed for classification tasks. In this paper, we argue encoder-decoder architecture is ineffective in generating strong multi-scale features because of the scale-decreased backbone. We propose SpineNet, a backbone with scale-permuted intermediate features and cross-scale connections that is learned on an object detection task by Neural Architecture Search. Using similar building blocks, SpineNet models outperform ResNet-FPN models by ~3% AP at various scales while using 10-20% fewer FLOPs. In particular, SpineNet-190 achieves 52.5% AP with a MaskR-CNN detector and achieves 52.1% AP with a RetinaNet detector on COCO for a single model without test-time augmentation, significantly outperforms prior art of detectors. SpineNet can transfer to classification tasks, achieving 5% top-1 accuracy improvement on a challenging iNaturalist fine-grained dataset. Code is at: https://github.com/tensorflow/tpu/tree/master/models/official/detection. View details
    BigNAS: Scaling Up Neural Architecture Search with Big Single-Stage Models
    Jiahui Yu
    Hanxiao Liu
    Gabriel M. Bender
    Thomas Huang
    Xiaodan Song
    Ruoming Pang
    European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV)(2020)
    Preview abstract Neural architecture search (NAS) has shown promising results discovering models that are both accurate and fast. For NAS, training a one-shot model has become a popular strategy to rank the relative quality of different architectures (child models) using a single set of shared weights. However, while one-shot model weights can effectively rank different network architectures, the absolute accuracies from these shared weights are typically far below those obtained from stand-alone training. To compensate, existing methods assume that the weights must be retrained, finetuned, or otherwise post-processed after the search is completed. These steps significantly increase the compute requirements and complexity of the architecture search and model deployment. In this work, we propose BigNAS, an approach that challenges the conventional wisdom that post-processing of the weights is necessary to get good prediction accuracies. Without extra retraining or post-processing steps, we are able to train a single set of shared weights on ImageNet and use these weights to obtain child models whose sizes range from 200 to 1000 MFLOPs. Our discovered model family, BigNASModels, achieve top-1 accuracies ranging from 76.5% to 80.9%, surpassing state-of-the-art models in this range including EfficientNets and Once-for-All networks without extra retraining or post-processing. We present ablative study and analysis to further understand the proposed BigNASModels. View details
    EfficientDet: Scalable and Efficient Object Detection
    Ruoming Pang
    Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition(2020)
    Preview abstract Model efficiency has become increasingly important in computer vision. In this paper, we systematically study neural network architecture design choices for object detection and propose several key optimizations to improve efficiency. First, we propose a weighted bi-directional feature pyramid network (BiFPN), which allows easy and fast multi-scale feature fusion; Second, we propose a compound scaling method that uniformly scales the resolution, depth, and width for all backbone, feature network, and box/class prediction networks at the same time. Based on these optimizations and better backbones, we have developed a new family of object detectors, called EfficientDet, which consistently achieve much better efficiency than prior art across a wide spectrum of resource constraints. In particular, with single-model and single-scale, our EfficientDet-D7 achieves state-of-the-art 53.7 AP on COCO test-dev with 52M parameters and 325B FLOPs, being 4x - 9x smaller and using 13x - 42x fewer FLOPs than previous detectors. Code is available at https://github.com/google/automl/tree/master/efficientdet. View details