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Tuning Quantum Information Scrambling on a 53-Qubit Processor

Alan Derk
Alan Ho
Alex Opremcak
Alexander Korotkov
Alexandre Bourassa
Andre Gregory Petukhov
Andrew Dunsworth
Anthony Megrant
Austin Fowler
Bálint Pató
Benjamin Chiaro
Benjamin Villalonga
Brooks Riley Foxen
Charles Neill
Cody Jones
Daniel Eppens
Dave Landhuis
Doug Strain
Edward Farhi
Eric Ostby
Fedor Kostritsa
Frank Carlton Arute
Igor Aleiner
Jamie Yao
Jeffrey Marshall
Jeremy Patterson Hilton
Jimmy Chen
Josh Mutus
Juan Atalaya
Kostyantyn Kechedzhi
Kunal Arya
Marco Szalay
Masoud Mohseni
Matt Trevithick
Michael Blythe Broughton
Michael Newman
Nicholas Bushnell
Nicholas Redd
Orion Martin
Pavel Laptev
Ping Yeh
Rami Barends
Roberto Collins
Salvatore Mandra
Sean Harrington
Sergei Isakov
Thomas E O'Brien
Trent Huang
Trevor Mccourt
Vadim Smelyanskiy
Vladimir Shvarts
William Courtney
Wojtek Mruczkiewicz
Xiao Mi
Yu Chen
Zhang Jiang
arXiv (2021)
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Abstract

As entanglement in a quantum system grows, initially localized quantum information is spread into the exponentially many degrees of freedom of the entire system. This process, known as quantum scrambling, is computationally intensive to study classically and lies at the heart of several modern physics conundrums. Here, we characterize scrambling of different quantum circuits on a 53-qubit programmable quantum processor by measuring their out-of-time-order correlators (OTOCs). We observe that the spatiotemporal spread of OTOCs, as well as their circuit-to-circuit fluctuation, unravel in detail the time-scale and extent of quantum scrambling. Comparison with numerical results indicates a high OTOC measurement accuracy despite the large size of the quantum system. Our work establishes OTOC as an experimental tool to diagnose quantum scrambling at the threshold of being classically inaccessible.

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