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Xuanhui Wang

Xuanhui Wang

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    Learning List-Level Domain-Invariant Representations for Ranking
    Ruicheng Xian
    Hamed Zamani
    Han Zhao
    37th Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS 2023)
    Preview abstract Domain adaptation aims to transfer the knowledge learned on (data-rich) source domains to (low-resource) target domains, and a popular method is invariant representation learning, which matches and aligns the data distributions on the feature space. Although this method is studied extensively and applied on classification and regression problems, its adoption on ranking problems is sporadic, and the few existing implementations lack theoretical justifications. This paper revisits invariant representation learning for ranking. Upon reviewing prior work, we found that they implement what we call item-level alignment, which aligns the distributions of the items being ranked from all lists in aggregate but ignores their list structure. However, the list structure should be leveraged, because it is intrinsic to ranking problems where the data and the metrics are defined and computed on lists, not the items by themselves. To close this discrepancy, we propose list-level alignment—learning domain-invariant representations at the higher level of lists. The benefits are twofold: it leads to the first domain adaptation generalization bound for ranking, in turn providing theoretical support for the proposed method, and it achieves better empirical transfer performance for unsupervised domain adaptation on ranking tasks, including passage reranking. View details
    Preview abstract Unbiased learning to rank (ULTR) studies the problem of mitigating various biases from implicit user feedback data such as clicks, and has been receiving considerable attention recently. A popular ULTR approach for real-world applications uses a two-tower architecture, where click modeling is factorized into a relevance tower with regular input features, and a bias tower with bias-relevant inputs such as the position of a document. A successful factorization will allow the relevance tower to be exempt from biases. In this work, we identify a critical issue that existing ULTR methods ignored - the bias tower can be confounded with the relevance tower via the underlying true relevance. In particular, the positions were determined by the logging policy, i.e., the previous production model, which would possess relevance information. We give both theoretical analysis and empirical results to show the negative effects on relevance tower due to such a correlation. We then propose two methods to mitigate the negative confounding effects by better disentangling relevance and bias. Offline empirical results on both controlled public datasets and a large-scale industry dataset show the effectiveness of the proposed approaches. We conduct a live experiment on a popular web store for four weeks, and find a significant improvement in user clicks over the baseline, which ignores the negative confounding effect. View details
    Regression Compatible Listwise Objectives for Calibrated Ranking with Binary Relevance
    Pratyush Kar
    Bing-Rong Lin
    Proceedings of the 32nd ACM International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management (2023)
    Preview abstract As Learning-to-Rank (LTR) approaches primarily seek to improve ranking quality, their output scores are not scale-calibrated by design. This fundamentally limits LTR usage in score-sensitive applications. Though a simple multi-objective approach that combines a regression and a ranking objective can effectively learn scale-calibrated scores, we argue that the two objectives are not necessarily compatible, which makes the trade-off less ideal for either of them. In this paper, we propose a practical regression compatible ranking (RCR) approach that achieves a better trade-off, where the two ranking and regression components are proved to be mutually aligned. Although the same idea applies to ranking with both binary and graded relevance, we mainly focus on binary labels in this paper. We evaluate the proposed approach on several public LTR benchmarks and show that it consistently achieves either best or competitive result in terms of both regression and ranking metrics, and significantly improves the Pareto frontiers in the context of multi-objective optimization. Furthermore, we evaluated the proposed approach on YouTube Search and found that it not only improved the ranking quality of the production pCTR model, but also brought gains to the click prediction accuracy. The proposed approach has been successfully deployed in the YouTube production system. View details
    Preview abstract Recent work has shown that Large Language Models (LLMs) can effectively re-rank the outputs of BM25 retrieval. This is achieved zero-shot by including task-specific instructions. However, for tasks that require scoring instead of generation, few-shot prompting remains underexplored. In this work, we improve LLM-based re-ranking performance by including demonstrations in the prompt. We show that adding even a single demonstration makes a significant impact. Our detailed analysis investigates under which conditions demonstrations are the most helpful. We propose a novel difficulty-based demonstration selection strategy instead of using the commonly used approach of semantic similarity. Furthermore, we show that demonstrations helpful for ranking are also effective at question generation. We hope our research will facilitate further studies into both question generation and passage re-ranking. View details
    RankT5: Fine-Tuning T5 for Text Ranking with Ranking Losses
    Jianmo Ni
    Proc. of the 46th International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval (SIGIR) (2023)
    Preview abstract Pretrained language models such as BERT have been shown to be exceptionally effective for text ranking. However, there are limited studies on how to leverage more powerful sequence-to-sequence models such as T5. Existing attempts usually formulate text ranking as a classification problem and rely on postprocessing to obtain a ranked list. In this paper, we propose RankT5 and study two T5-based ranking model structures, an encoder-decoder and an encoder-only one, so that they not only can directly output ranking scores for each query-document pair, but also can be fine-tuned with "pairwise" or "listwise" ranking losses to optimize ranking performance. Our experiments show that the proposed models with ranking losses can achieve substantial ranking performance gains on different public text ranking data sets. Moreover, ranking models fine-tuned with listwise ranking losses have better zero-shot ranking performance on out-of-domain data than models fine-tuned with classification losses. View details
    Preview abstract The distillation of ranking models has become an important topic in both academia and industry. In recent years, several advanced methods have been proposed to tackle this problem, often leveraging ranking information from teacher rankers that is absent in traditional classification settings. To date, there is no well-established consensus on how to evaluate this class of models. Moreover, inconsistent benchmarking on a wide range of tasks and datasets make it difficult to assess or invigorate advances in this field. This paper first examines representative prior arts on ranking distillation, and raises three questions to be answered around methodology and reproducibility. To that end, we propose a systematic and unified benchmark, Ranking Distillation Suite (RD-Suite), which is a suite of tasks with 4 large realworld datasets, encompassing two major modalities (textual and numeric) and two applications (standard distillation and distillation transfer). RD-Suite consists of benchmark results that challenge some of the common wisdom in the field, and the release of datasets with teacher scores and evaluation scripts for future research. RD-Suite paves the way towards better understanding of ranking distillation, facilities more research in this direction, and presents new challenges. View details
    Preview abstract Ranking is at the core of Information Retrieval. Classic ranking optimization studies often treat ranking as a sorting problem with the assumption that the best performance of ranking would be achieved if we rank items according to their individual utility. Accordingly, considerable ranking metrics have been developed and learning-to-rank algorithms that have been designed to optimize these simple performance metrics have been widely used in modern IR systems. As applications evolve, however, people's need for information retrieval have shifted from simply retrieving relevant documents to more advanced information services that satisfy their complex working and entertainment needs. Thus, more complicated and user-centric objectives such as user satisfaction and engagement have been adopted to evaluate modern IR systems today. Those objectives, unfortunately, are difficult to be optimized under existing learning-to-rank frameworks as they are subject to great variance and complicated structures that cannot be explicitly explained or formulated with math equations like those simple performance metrics. This leads to the following research question -- how to optimize result ranking for complex ranking metrics without knowing their internal structures? To address this question, we conduct formal analysis on the limitation of existing ranking optimization techniques and describe three research tasks in Metric-agnostic Ranking Optimization: (1) develop surrogate metric models to simulate complex online ranking metrics on offline data; (2) develop differentiable ranking optimization frameworks for list or session level performance metrics without fine-grained supervision signals; and (3) develop efficient parameter exploration and exploitation techniques for ranking optimization in metric-agnostic scenarios. Through the discussion of potential solutions to these tasks, we hope to encourage more people to look into the problem of ranking optimization in complex search and recommendation scenarios. View details
    Stochastic Retrieval-Conditioned Reranking
    Hamed Zamani
    The ACM SIGIR International Conference on the Theory of Information Retrieval (ICTIR) 2022
    Preview abstract The multi-stage cascaded architecture has been adopted by many search engines for efficient and effective retrieval. This architecture consists of a stack of retrieval and reranking models in which efficient retrieval models are followed by effective (neural) learning to rank models. The optimization of these learning to rank models is loosely connected to the early stage retrieval models. In many cases these learning to rank models are often trained in isolation of the early stage retrieval models. This paper draws theoretical connections between the early stage retrieval and late stage reranking models by deriving expected reranking performance conditioned on the early stage retrieval results. Our findings shed light on optimization of both retrieval and reranking models. As a result, we also introduce a novel loss function for training reranking models that leads to significant improvement in multiple public benchmarks. View details
    Rax: Composable Learning-to-Rank using JAX
    Proceedings of the 28th ACM SIGKDD Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (2022), 3051–3060
    Preview abstract Rax is a library for composable Learning-to-Rank (LTR) written entirely in JAX. The goal of Rax is to facilitate easy prototyping of LTR systems by leveraging the flexibility and simplicity of JAX. Rax provides a diverse set of popular ranking metrics and losses that integrate well with the rest of the JAX ecosystem. Furthermore, Rax implements a system of ranking-specific function transformations which allows fine-grained customization of ranking losses and metrics. Most notably Rax provides approx_t12n: a function transformation (t12n) that can transform any of our ranking metrics into an approximate and differentiable form that can be optimized. This provides a systematic way to directly optimize neural ranking models for ranking metrics that are not easily optimizable in other libraries. We empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of Rax by benchmarking neural models implemented using Flax and trained using Rax on two popular LTR benchmarks: WEB30K and Istella. Furthermore, we show that integrating ranking losses with T5, a large language model, can improve overall ranking performance on the MS MARCO passage ranking task. We are sharing the Rax library with the open source community as part of the larger JAX ecosystem at https://github.com/google/rax. View details
    Preview abstract Multiclass classification (MCC) is a fundamental machine learning problem of classifying each instance into one of a predefined set of classes. Given an instance, an MCC model computes a score for each class, all of which are used to sort the classes. The performance of a model is usually measured by Top-K Accuracy/Error (e.g. K=1 or 5). In this paper, we do not aim to propose new neural network architectures as most recent works do, but to show that it is promising to boost MCC performance with a novel formulation through the lens of ranking. In particular, by viewing MCC as \emph{an instance class ranking problem}, we first argue that ranking metrics, such as Normalized Discounted Cumulative Gain, can be more informative than the existing Top-K metrics. We further demonstrate that the dominant neural MCC recipe can be transformed to a neural ranking pipeline. Based on such generalization, we show that it is intuitive to leverage techniques from the rich information retrieval literature to improve the MCC performance out of the box. Extensive empirical results on both text and image classification tasks with diverse datasets and backbone neural models show the value of our proposed framework. View details
    Scale Calibration of Deep Ranking Models
    28TH ACM SIGKDD Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (KDD) (2022), pp. 4300-4309
    Preview abstract Learning-to-Rank (LTR) systems are ubiquitous in web applications nowadays. The existing literature mainly focuses on improving ranking performance by trying to generate the optimal order of candidate items. However, virtually all advanced ranking functions are not scale calibrated. For example, rankers have the freedom to add a constant to all item scores without changing their relative order. This property has resulted in several limitations in deploying advanced ranking methods in practice. On the one hand, it limits the use of effective ranking functions in important applications. For example, in ads ranking, predicted Click-Through Rate (pCTR) is used for ranking and is required to be calibrated for the downstream ads auction. This is a major reason that existing ads ranking methods use scale calibrated pointwise loss functions that may sacrifice ranking performance. On the other hand, popular ranking losses are translation-invariant. We rigorously show that, both theoretically and empirically, this property leads to training instability that may cause severe practical issues. In this paper, we study how to perform scale calibration of deep ranking models to address the above concerns. We design three different formulations to calibrate ranking models through calibrated ranking losses. Unlike existing post-processing methods, our calibration is performed during training, which can resolve the training instability issue without any additional processing. We conduct experiments on the standard LTR benchmark datasets and one of the largest sponsored search ads dataset from Google. Our results show that our proposed calibrated ranking losses can achieve nearly optimal results in terms of both ranking quality and score scale calibration. View details
    Search and Discovery in Personal Email Collections (Tutorial Proposal)
    Proceedings of the 15th ACM International Conference on Web Search and Data Mining (2022), 1617–1619
    Preview abstract Email has been an essential communication medium for many years. As a result, the information accumulated in our mailboxes has become valuable for all of our personal and professional activities. For years, researchers have developed interfaces, models, and algorithms to facilitate email search, discovery, and organization. This tutorial brings together these diverse research directions and provides both a historical background, as well as a high-level overview of the recent advances in the field. In particular, we lay out all of the components needed in the design of email search engines, including user interfaces, indexing, document and query understanding, retrieval, ranking, evaluation, and data privacy. The tutorial also goes beyond search, presenting recent work on intelligent task assistance in email and a number of interesting future directions. View details
    Revisiting two tower models for unbiased learning to rank
    Proceedings of the 45th International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval (2022), 2410–2414
    Preview abstract Two-tower architecture (one tower to factorize out position-related bias) has now become a common technique in neural network ranking models for Unbiased Learning To Rank (ULTR). In these models, a neural network tower taking in all position related features is designed to model the biases, which are equivalent to the propensity scores used to define the unbiased ranking metrics. It works based on the assumptions that the user interaction (click) is conditioned on the user observation of a ranked item, and only the observation probability depends on the position. So if we factorize out the observation probability, we can then unbiased rank the items by their click rate conditioned on observation. The assumption appears sensible, and the additive two-tower models based on it have been widely implemented in ULTR. However, two-tower models may not always work and sometimes work even worse than the biased models, as the user may not always follow the same pattern. In this work, we stick to the plausible assumption about the user interaction, but we also consider the spectrum of different user behaviors. In this case, the assumption that the position related observation probability may not be able to get explicitly factorized out. We also study generic methods to treat this complexity and show these methods could outperform the simple additive debias models in offline experiments. View details
    Preview abstract We explore a novel perspective of knowledge distillation (KD) for learning to rank (LTR), and introduce Self-Distilled neural Rankers (SDR), where student rankers are parameterized identically to their teachers. Unlike the existing ranking distillation work which pursues a good trade-off between performance and efficiency, SDR is able to significantly improve ranking performance of students over the teacher rankers without increasing model capacity. The key success factors of SDR, which differs from common distillation techniques for classification are: (1) an appropriate teacher score transformation function, and (2) a novel listwise distillation framework. Both techniques are specifically designed for ranking problems and are rarely studied in the existing knowledge distillation literature. Building upon the state-of-the-art neural ranking structure, SDR is able to push the limits of neural ranking performance above a recent rigorous benchmark study and significantly outperforms traditionally strong gradient boosted decision tree based models on 7 out of 9 key metrics, the first time in the literature. In addition to the strong empirical results, we give theoretical explanations on why listwise distillation is effective for neural rankers, and provide ablation studies to verify the necessity of the key factors in the SDR framework. View details
    On Optimizing Top-K Metrics for Neural Ranking Models
    Proceedings of the 45th International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval (2022), 2303–2307
    Preview abstract Top-K metrics such as NDCG@K are frequently used to evaluate ranking performance. The traditional tree-based models such as LambdaMART, which are based on Gradient Boosted Decision Trees (GBDT), are designed to optimize NDCG@K using the LambdaRank losses. Recently, there is a good amount of research interest on neural ranking models for learning-to-rank tasks. These models are fundamentally different from the decision tree models and behave differently with respect to different loss functions. For example, the most popular ranking losses used in neural models are the Softmax loss and the GumbelApproxNDCG loss. These losses do not connect to top-K metrics such as NDCG@K naturally. It remains a question on how to effectively optimize NDCG@K for neural ranking models. In this paper, we follow the LambdaLoss framework and design novel and theoretically sound losses for NDCG@K metrics, while the original LambdaLoss paper can only do so using an unsound heuristic. We study the new losses on the LETOR benchmark datasets and show that the new losses work better than other losses for neural ranking models. View details
    Ensemble Distillation for BERT-Based Ranking Models
    Shuguang Han
    Proceedings of the 2021 ACM SIGIR International Conference on the Theory of Information Retrieval (ICTIR ’21)
    Preview abstract Over the past two years, large pretrained language models such as BERT have been applied to text ranking problems and showed superior performance on multiple public benchmark data sets. Prior work demonstrated that an ensemble of multiple BERT-based ranking models can not only boost the performance, but also reduce the performance variance. However, an ensemble of models is more costly because it needs computing resource and/or inference time proportional to the number of models. In this paper, we study how to retain the performance of an ensemble of models at the inference cost of a single model by distilling the ensemble into a single BERT-based student ranking model. Specifically, we study different designs of teacher labels, various distillation strategies, as well as multiple distillation losses tailored for ranking problems. We conduct experiments on the MS MARCO passage ranking and the TREC-COVID data set. Our results show that even with these simple distillation techniques, the distilled model can effectively retain the performance gain of the ensemble of multiple models. More interestingly, the performances of distilled models are also more stable than models fine-tuned on original labeled data. The results reveal a promising direction to capitalize on the gains achieved by an ensemble of BERT-based ranking models. View details
    Preview abstract We describe how we built three recommendation products from scratch at Google Chrome Web Store, namely context-based recommendations, related extension recommendations, and personalized recommendations. Unlike most existing papers that focus on novel algorithms, this paper focuses on sharing practical experiences building large scale recommender systems under various real-world constraints, such as privacy constraints, data sparsity issues, highly skewed data distribution, and product design choices, such as user interface. We show how these constraints make standard approaches difficult to succeed in practice. We share success stories that turn very negative live metrics to very positive, by introducing 1) how we use interpretable neural models to bootstrap the systems, helps identifying pipeline issues, and paves way for more advanced models. 2) A new item-item based recommendation algorithm that works under highly skewed data distributions, and 3) how two products can help bootstrapping the third one, which significantly reduces development cycles and bypasses various real-world difficulties. All the explorations in this work are verified in live traffic on millions of users. We believe the findings in this work can help practitioners to bootstrap and build large-scale recommender systems. View details
    Preview abstract A well-known challenge in leveraging implicit user feedback like clicks to improve real-world search services and recommender systems is its inherent bias. Most existing click models are based on the examination hypothesis in user behaviors and differ in how to model such an examination bias. However, they are constrained by assuming a simple position-based bias or enforcing a sequential order in user examination behaviors. These assumptions are insufficient to capture complex real-world user behaviors and hardly generalize to modern user interfaces (UI) in web applications (e.g., results shown in a grid view). In this work, we propose a fully data-driven neural model for the examination bias, Cross-Positional Attention (XPA), which is more flexible in fitting complex user behaviors. Our model leverages the attention mechanism to effectively capture cross-positional interactions among displayed items and is applicable to arbitrary UIs. We employ XPA in a novel neural click model that can both predict clicks and estimate relevance. Our experiments on offline synthetic data sets show that XPA is robust among different click generation processes. We further apply XPA to a large-scale real-world recommender system, showing significantly better results than baselines in online A/B experiments that involve millions of users. This validates the necessity to model more complex user behaviors than those proposed in the literature. View details
    Interpretable Ranking with Generalized Additive Models
    Alexander Grushetsky
    Petr Mitrichev
    Ethan Sterling
    Nathan Bell
    Walker Ravina
    Hai Qian
    Proceedings of the 14th ACM International Conference on Web Search and Data Mining (WSDM) (2021)
    Preview abstract Interpretability of ranking models is a crucial yet relatively under-examined research area. Recent progress on this area largely focuses on generating post-hoc explanations for existing black-box ranking models. Though promising, such post-hoc methods cannot provide sufficiently accurate explanations in general, which makes them infeasible in many high-stakes scenarios, especially the ones with legal or policy constraints. Thus, building an intrinsically interpretable ranking model with transparent, self-explainable structure becomes necessary, but this remains less explored in the learning-to-rank setting. In this paper, we lay the groundwork for intrinsically interpretable learning-to-rank by introducing generalized additive models (GAMs) into ranking tasks. Generalized additive models (GAMs) are intrinsically interpretable machine learning models and have been extensively studied on regression and classification tasks. We study how to extend GAMs into ranking models which can handle both item-level and list-level features and propose a novel formulation of ranking GAMs. To instantiate ranking GAMs, we employ neural networks instead of traditional splines or regression trees. We also show that our neural ranking GAMs can be distilled into a set of simple and compact piece-wise linear functions that are much more efficient to evaluate with little accuracy loss. We conduct experiments on three data sets and show that our proposed neural ranking GAMs can outperform other traditional GAM baselines while maintaining similar interpretability. View details
    Preview abstract Despite the success of neural models in many major machine learning problems and recently published neural learning to rank (LTR) papers in top venues, the effectiveness of neural models on traditional LTR problems is still not widely acknowledged. We first validate the concern by showing that most recent neural LTR models are, by a large margin, inferior to the best publicly available tree-based implementation, which is sometimes ignored in recent neural LTR papers. We then investigate why existing neural LTR suffers by identifying several of its weaknesses. To that end, we propose a new neural LTR framework that mitigates these weaknesses, by borrowing ideas from several research fields. Our models are able to perform comparatively with the strong tree-based baseline, while outperforming recently published neural learning to rank methods by a large margin. Our results also serve as a benchmark for neural learning to rank models. View details
    Non-Clicks Mean Irrelevant? Propensity Ratio Scoring As a Correction
    Nan Wang
    Hongning Wang
    14th ACM International Conference on Web Search and Data Mining (WSDM) (2021)
    Preview abstract Recent advances in unbiased learning to rank (LTR) count on Inverse Propensity Scoring (IPS) to eliminate bias in implicit feedback. Though theoretically sound in correcting the bias introduced by treating clicked documents as relevant, IPS ignores the bias caused by (implicitly) treating non-clicked ones as irrelevant. In this work, we first rigorously prove that such use of click data leads to unnecessary pairwise comparisons between relevant documents, which prevent unbiased ranker optimization. Based on the proof, we derive a simple yet well justified new weighting scheme, called Propensity Ratio Scoring (PRS), which provides treatments on both clicks and non-clicks. Besides correcting the bias in clicks, PRS avoids relevant-relevant document comparisons in LTR training and enjoys a lower variability. Our extensive empirical evaluations confirm that PRS ensures a more effective use of click data and improved performance in both synthetic data from a set of LTR benchmarks, as well as in the real-world large-scale data from GMail search. View details
    Preview abstract Existing work on search result diversification typically falls into the "next document" paradigm, that is, selecting the next document based on the ones already chosen. A sequential process of selecting documents one-by-one is naturally modeled in learning-based approaches. However, such a process makes the learning difficult because there are an exponential number of ranking lists to consider. Sampling is usually used to reduce the computational complexity but this makes the learning less effective. In this paper, we propose a soft version of the "next document" paradigm in which we associate each document with an approximate rank, and thus the subtopics covered prior to a document can also be estimated. We show that we can derive differentiable diversification-aware losses, which are smooth approximation of diversity metrics like alpha-NDCG, based on these estimates. We further propose to optimize the losses in the learning-to-rank setting using neural distributed representations of queries and documents. Experiments are conducted on the public benchmark TREC datasets. By comparing with an extensive list of baseline methods, we show that our Diversification-Aware LEarning-TO-Rank (DALETOR) approaches outperform them by a large margin, while being much simpler during learning and inference. View details
    Preview abstract How to leverage cross-document interactions to improve ranking performance is an important topic in information retrieval research. The recent developments in deep learning show strength in modeling complex relationships across sequences and sets. It thus motivates us to study how to leverage cross-document interactions for learning-to-rank in the deep learning framework. In this paper, we formally define the permutation equivariance requirement for a scoring function that captures cross-document interactions. We then propose a self-attention based document interaction network that extends any univariate scoring function with contextual features capturing cross-document interactions. We show that it satisfies the permutation equivariance requirement, and can generate scores for document sets of varying sizes. Our proposed methods can automatically learn to capture document interactions without any auxiliary information, and can scale across large document sets. We conduct experiments on four ranking datasets: the public benchmarks WEB30K and Istella, as well as Gmail search and Google Drive Quick Access datasets. Experimental results show that our proposed methods lead to significant quality improvements over state-of-the-art neural ranking models, and are competitive with state-of-the-art gradient boosted decision tree (GBDT) based models on the WEB30K dataset. View details
    Stabilizing Neural Search Ranking Models
    Ruilin Li
    Suming Jeremiah Chen
    The Web Conference 2020 (WWW)
    Preview abstract Neural search ranking models have been not only actively studied in academic research, but also widely adopted in real-world industrial applications. However, due to the high non-convexity and stochastic nature of neural model formulations, the obtained models are unstable in the sense that model predictions can vary a lot for two models trained with the same configuration. In practice, new features are continuously introduced and new model architectures are explored to improve model effectiveness. In these cases, the instability of neural models lead to unnecessary document ranking changes for a large portion of queries. Such changes not only lead to inconsistent user experience, but also add noise to online experimentation and can slow down model improvement cycles. How to stabilize neural search ranking models during model update is an important but largely unexplored problem. Motivated by trigger analysis, we suggest to balance the trade-off between performance improvement and the amount of affected queries. Concretely, we formulate it as an optimization problem with the objective as maximizing the average effect over the affected queries. We propose two heuristics and one theory-guided stabilization methods to solve the optimization problem. Our proposed methods are evaluated on two of the world's largest personal search services: Gmail search and Google Drive search. Empirical results show that our proposed methods are very effective in optimizing the proposed objective and are applicable to different model update scenarios. View details
    Preview abstract This paper describes a machine learning algorithm for document (re)ranking, in which queries and documents are firstly encoded using BERT [1], and on top of that a learning-to-rank (LTR) model constructed with TF-Ranking (TFR) [2] is applied to further optimize the ranking performance. This approach is proved to be effective in a public MS MARCO benchmark [3]. Our submissions achieve the best performance for the passage re-ranking task as of March 30, 2020 [4], and the second best performance for the passage full-ranking task as of April 10, 2020 [5], demonstrating the effectiveness of combining ranking losses with BERT representations for document ranking. View details
    Attribute-based Propensity for Unbiased Learning in Recommender Systems: Algorithm and Case Studies
    Suming Jeremiah Chen
    Yongwoo Noh
    Jingzheng Qin
    26TH ACM SIGKDD Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (KDD) (2020)
    Preview abstract Many modern recommender systems train their models based on a large amount of implicit user feedback data. Due to the inherent bias in this data (e.g., position bias), learning from it directly can lead to suboptimal models. Recently, unbiased learning was proposed to address such problems by leveraging counterfactual techniques like inverse propensity weighting (IPW). In these methods, propensity scores estimation is usually limited to item's display position in a single user interface (UI). In this paper, we generalize the traditional position bias model to an attribute-based propensity framework. Our methods estimate propensity scores based on offline data and allow propensity estimation across a broad range of implicit feedback scenarios, e.g., feedback beyond recommender system UI. We demonstrate this by applying this framework to three real-world large-scale recommender systems in Google Drive that serve millions of users. For each system, we conduct both offline and online evaluation. Our results show that the proposed framework is able to significantly improve upon strong production baselines across a diverse range of recommendation item types (documents, people-document pairs, and queries), UI layouts (horizontal, vertical, and grid layouts), and underlying learning algorithms (gradient boosted decision trees and neural networks), all without the need to intervene and degrade the user experience. The proposed models have been deployed in the production systems with ease since no serving infrastructure change is needed. View details
    Parameter Tuning in Personal Search Systems
    Suming Jeremiah Chen
    13th ACM International Conference on Web Search and Data Mining (WSDM) (2020)
    Preview abstract Retrieval effectiveness in information retrieval systems is heavily dependent on how various parameters are tuned. One option to find these parameters is to run multiple online experiments and using a parameter sweep approach in order to optimize the search system. There are multiple downsides of this approach, mainly that it may lead to a poor experience for users. Another option is to do offline evaluation, which can act as a safeguard against potential quality issues. Offline evaluation requires a validation set of data that can be benchmarked against different parameter settings. However, for search over personal corpora, e.g. email and file search, it is impractical and often impossible to get a complete representative validation set, due to the inability to save raw queries and document information. In this work, we show how to do offline parameter tuning with only a partial validation set. In addition, we demonstrate how to do parameter tuning in the cases when we have complete knowledge of the internal implementation of the search system (white-box tuning), as well as the case where we have only partial knowledge (grey-box tuning). This has allowed us to do offline parameter tuning in a privacy-sensitive manner. View details
    Feature Transformation for Neural Ranking Models
    Proceedings of the 43rd International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval (SIGIR 2020), pp. 1649-1652
    Preview abstract Although neural network models enjoy tremendous advantages in handling image and text data, tree-based models still remain competitive for learning-to-rank tasks with numerical data. A major strength of tree-based ranking models is the insensitivity to different feature scales, while neural ranking models may suffer from features with varying scales or skewed distributions. Feature transformation or normalization is a simple technique which preprocesses input features to mitigate their potential adverse impact on neural models. However, due to lack of studies, it is unclear to what extent feature transformation can benefit neural ranking models. In this paper, we aim to answer this question by providing empirical evidence for learning-to-rank tasks. First, we present a list of commonly used feature transformation techniques and perform a comparative study on multiple learning-to-rank data sets. Then we propose a mixture feature transformation mechanism which can automatically derive a mixture of basic feature transformation functions to achieve the optimal performance. Our experiments show that applying feature transformation can substantially improve the performance of neural ranking models compared to directly using the raw features. In addition, the proposed mixture transformation method can further improve the performance of the ranking model without any additional human effort. View details
    An Analysis of the Softmax Cross Entropy Loss for Learning-to-Rank with Binary Relevance
    Sebastian Bruch
    Proceedings of the 2019 ACM SIGIR International Conference on the Theory of Information Retrieval (ICTIR 2019), pp. 75-78
    Preview abstract One of the challenges of learning-to-rank for information retrieval is that ranking metrics are not smooth and as such cannot be optimized directly with gradient descent optimization methods. This gap has given rise to a large body of research that reformulates the problem to fit into existing machine learning frameworks or defines a surrogate, ranking-appropriate loss function. One such loss ListNet's which measures the cross entropy between a distribution over documents obtained from scores and another from ground-truth labels. This loss was designed to capture permutation probabilities and as such is considered to be only loosely related to ranking metrics. In this work, however, we show that the above statement is not entirely accurate. In fact, we establish an analytical connection between softmax cross entropy and two popular ranking metrics in a learning-to-rank setup with binary relevance labels. In particular, we show that ListNet's loss bounds Mean Reciprocal Rank as well as Normalized Discounted Cumulative Gain. Our analysis sheds light on the behavior of that loss function and explains its superior performance on binary labeled data over data with graded relevance. View details
    TF-Ranking: Scalable TensorFlow Library for Learning-to-Rank
    Sebastian Bruch
    Rohan Anil
    Stephan Wolf
    Proceedings of the 25th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (KDD) (2019), pp. 2970-2978
    Preview abstract Learning-to-Rank deals with maximizing the utility of a list of examples presented to the user, with items of higher relevance being prioritized. It has several practical applications such as large-scale search, recommender systems, document summarization and question answering. While there is widespread support for classification and regression based learning, support for learning-to-rank in deep learning has been limited. We propose TensorFlow Ranking, the first open source library for solving large-scale ranking problems in a deep learning framework. It is highly configurable and provides easy-to-use APIs to support different scoring mechanisms, loss functions and evaluation metrics in the learning-to-rank setting. Our library is developed on top of TensorFlow and can thus fully leverage the advantages of this platform. For example, it is highly scalable, both in training and in inference, and can be used to learn ranking models over massive amounts of user activity data, which can include heterogeneous dense and sparse features. We empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of our library in learning ranking functions for large-scale search and recommendation applications in Gmail and Google Drive. We also show that ranking models built using our model scale well for distributed training, without significant impact in metrics. The proposed library is available to the open source community, with the hope that it facilitates further academic research and industrial applications in the field of learning-to-rank. View details
    Estimating Position Bias without Intrusive Interventions
    Aman Agarwal
    Ivan Zaitsev
    Thorsten Joachims
    Proceedings of the 12 ACM International Conference on Web Search and Data Mining (2019), pp. 474-482
    Preview abstract Presentation bias is one of the key challenges when learning from implicit feedback in search engines, as it confounds the relevance signal. While it was recently shown how counterfactual learning-to-rank (LTR) approaches can provably overcome presentation bias when observation propensities are known, it remains to show how to effectively estimate these propensities. In this paper, we propose the first method for producing consistent propensity estimates without manual relevance judgments, disruptive interventions, or restrictive relevance modeling assumptions. First, we show how to harvest a specific type of intervention data from historic feedback logs of multiple different ranking functions, and show that this data is sufficient for consistent propensity estimation in the position-based model. Second, we propose a new extremum estimator that makes effective use of this data. In an empirical evaluation, we find that the new estimator provides superior propensity estimates in two real-world systems -- Arxiv Full-text Search and Google Drive Search. Beyond these two points, we find that the method is robust to a wide range of settings in simulation studies. View details
    Learning Groupwise Multivariate Scoring Functions Using Deep Neural Networks
    Qingyao Ai
    Sebastian Bruch
    Proceedings of the 5th ACM SIGIR International Conference on the Theory of Information Retrieval (ICTIR) (2019), pp. 85-92
    Preview abstract While in a classification or a regression setting a label or a value is assigned to each individual document, in a ranking setting we determine the relevance ordering of the entire input document list. This difference leads to the notion of relative relevance between documents in ranking. The majority of the existing learning-to-rank algorithms model such relativity at the loss level using pairwise or listwise loss functions. However, they are restricted to univariate scoring functions, i.e., the relevance score of a document is computed based on the document itself, regardless of other documents in the list. To overcome this limitation, we propose a new framework for multivariate scoring functions, in which the relevance score of a document is determined jointly by multiple documents in the list. We refer to this framework as GSFs---groupwise scoring functions. We learn GSFs with a deep neural network architecture, and demonstrate that several representative learning-to-rank algorithms can be modeled as special cases in our framework. We conduct evaluation using click logs from one of the largest commercial email search engines, as well as a public benchmark dataset. In both cases, GSFs lead to significant performance improvements, especially in the presence of sparse textual features. View details
    Combining Decision Trees and Neural Networks for Learning-to-Rank in Personal Search
    Pan Li
    25TH ACM SIGKDD Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (KDD) (2019)
    Preview abstract Decision Trees (DTs) like LambdaMART have been one of the most effective types of learning-to-rank algorithms in the past decade. They typically work well with hand-crafted dense features (e.g., BM25 scores). Recently, Neural Networks (NNs) have shown impressive results in leveraging sparse and complex features (e.g., query and document keywords) directly when a large amount of training data is available. While there is a large chunk of work on how to use NNs for semantic matching between queries and documents, relatively less work has been conducted to compare NNs with DTs for general learning-to-rank tasks, where dense features are also available and DTs can achieve state-of-the-art performance. In this paper, we study how to combine DTs and NNs to effectively bring the benefits from both sides in the learning-to- rank setting. Specifically, we focus our study on personal search where clicks are used as the primary labels with unbiased learning- to-rank algorithms and a significantly large amount of training data is easily available. Our combination methods are based on ensemble learning. We design 12 variants and compare them based on two aspects, ranking effectiveness and ease-of-deployment, using two of the largest personal search services: Gmail search and Google Drive search. We show that direct application of existing ensemble methods can not achieve both aspects. We thus design a novel method that uses NNs to compensate DTs via boosting. We show that such a method is not only easier to deploy, but also gives comparable or better ranking accuracy. View details
    Preview abstract Existing unbiased learning-to-rank models use counterfactual inference, notably Inverse Propensity Scoring (IPS), to learn a ranking function from biased click data. They handle the click incompleteness bias, but usually assume that the clicks are noise-free, i.e., a clicked document is always assumed to be relevant. In this paper, we relax this unrealistic assumption and study click noise explicitly in the unbiased learning-to-rank setting. Specifically, we model the noise as the position-dependent trust bias and propose a noise-aware Position-Based Model, named TrustPBM, to better capture user click behavior. We propose an Expectation-Maximization algorithm to estimate both examination and trust bias from click data in TrustPBM. Furthermore, we show that it is difficult to use a pure IPS method to incorporate click noise and thus propose a novel method that combines a Bayes rule application with IPS for unbiased learning-to-rank. We evaluate our proposed methods on three personal search data sets and demonstrate that our proposed model can significantly outperform the existing unbiased learning-to-rank methods. View details
    Learning Groupwise Scoring Functions Using Deep Neural Networks
    Qingyao Ai
    Proceedings of the First International Workshop On Deep Matching In Practical Applications (2019)
    Preview abstract While in a classification or a regression setting a label or a value is assigned to each individual document, in a ranking setting we determine the relevance ordering of the entire input document list. This difference leads to the notion of relative relevance between documents in ranking. The majority of the existing learning-to-rank algorithms model such relativity at the loss level using pairwise or listwise loss functions. However, they are restricted to pointwise scoring functions, i.e., the relevance score of a document is computed based on the document itself, regardless of the other documents in the list. In this paper, we overcome this limitation by proposing generalized groupwise scoring functions (GSFs), in which the relevance score of a document is determined jointly by groups of documents in the list. We learn GSFs with a deep neural network architecture, and demonstrate that several representative learning-to-rank algorithms can be modeled as special cases in our framework. We conduct evaluation using the public MSLR-WEB30K dataset, and our experiments show that GSFs lead to significant performance improvements both in a standalone deep learning architecture, or when combined with a state-of-the-art tree-based learning-to-rank algorithm. View details
    Preview abstract TensorFlow Ranking is the first open source library for solving large-scale ranking problems in a deep learning framework. It is highly configurable and provides easy-to-use APIs to support different scoring mechanisms, loss functions and evaluation metrics in the learning-to-rank setting. Our library is developed on top of TensorFlow and can thus fully leverage the advantages of this platform. For example, it is highly scalable, both in training and in inference, and can be used to learn ranking models over massive amounts of user activity data. We empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of our library in learning ranking functions for large-scale search and recommendation applications in Gmail and Google Drive. View details
    The LambdaLoss Framework for Ranking Metric Optimization
    Proceedings of The 27th ACM International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management (CIKM '18), ACM (2018), pp. 1313-1322
    Preview abstract How to optimize ranking metrics such as Normalized Discounted Cumulative Gain (NDCG) is an important but challenging problem, because ranking metrics are either flat or discontinuous everywhere, which makes them hard to be optimized directly. Among existing approaches, LambdaRank is a novel algorithm that incorporates ranking metrics into its learning procedure. Though empirically effective, it still lacks theoretical justification. For example, the underlying loss that LambdaRank optimizes for remains unknown until now. Due to this, there is no principled way to advance the LambdaRank algorithm further. In this paper, we present LambdaLoss, a probabilistic framework for ranking metric optimization. We show that LambdaRank is a special configuration with a well-defined loss in the LambdaLoss framework, and thus provide theoretical justification for it. More importantly, the LambdaLoss framework allows us to define metric-driven loss functions that have clear connection to different ranking metrics. We show a few cases in this paper and evaluate them on three publicly available data sets. Experimental results show that our metric-driven loss functions can significantly improve the state-of-the-art learning-to-rank algorithms. View details
    Position Bias Estimation for Unbiased Learning to Rank in Personal Search
    Proceedings of the 11th ACM International Conference on Web Search and Data Mining (WSDM), ACM (2018), pp. 610-618
    Preview abstract A well-known challenge in learning from click data is its inherent bias and most notably position bias. Traditional click models aim to extract the (query, document) relevance and the estimated bias is usually discarded after relevance is extracted. In contrast, the most recent work on unbiased learning-to-rank can effectively leverage the bias and thus focuses on estimating bias rather than relevance. Existing approaches use search result randomization over a small percentage of production traffic to estimate the position bias. This is not desired because result randomization can negatively impact users' search experience. In this paper, we compare different schemes for result randomization (i.e., RandTopN and RandPair) and show their negative effect in personal search. Then we study how to infer such bias from regular click data without relying on randomization. We propose a regression-based Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm that is based on a position bias click model and that can handle highly sparse clicks in personal search. We evaluate our EM algorithm and the extracted bias in the learning-to-rank setting. Our results show that it is promising to extract position bias from regular clicks without result randomization. The extracted bias can improve the learning-to-rank algorithms significantly. In addition, we compare the pointwise and pairwise learning-to-rank models. Our results show that pairwise models are more effective in leveraging the estimated bias. View details
    Preview abstract Ranking functions are used to return ranked lists of items for users to interact. How to evaluate ranking functions using historical user interaction logs, as known as off-policy evaluation, is an important but challenging problem. The commonly used Inverse Propensity Scores (IPS) approaches works better for the single item case, but suffer from extremely low data efficiency for the ranked list case. In this paper, we study how to improve the data efficiency of IPS approaches in the offline comparison setting. We propose two approaches Trunc-match and Rand-interleaving for offline comparison using uniformly randomized data. We show that these methods can improve the data efficiency and also the comparison sensitivity based on one of the largest email search engines. View details
    Learning with Sparse and Biased Feedback for Personal Search
    Proceedings of the 27th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI) (2018), pp. 5219-5223
    Preview abstract Personal search, including email, on-device, and personal media search, has recently attracted a considerable attention from the information retrieval community. In this paper, we provide an overview of challenges and opportunities of learning with implicit user feedback (e.g., click data) in personal search. Implicit user feedback provides a convenient source of supervision for ranking models in personal search. This feedback, however, has two major drawbacks: it is highly sparse and biased due to the personal nature of queries and documents. We demonstrate how these drawbacks can be overcome, and empirically demonstrate the benefits of learning with implicit feedback in the context of a large-scale email search engine. View details
    Preview abstract Modern search engines leverage a variety of sources, beyond the traditional query-document content similarity, to improve their ranking performance. Among them, query context has attracted attention in prior work. Previously, query context was mainly modeled by user search history, either long-term or short-term, to help the ranking of future queries. In this paper, we focus on situational context, i.e., the contextual features of the current search request that are independent from both query content and user history. As an example, situational context can depend on search request time and location. We propose two context-aware ranking models based on neural networks. The first model learns a low-dimensional deep representation from the combination of contextual features. The second model extends the first model by leveraging binarized contextual features in addition to the high-level abstractions learned from a deep network. The existing context-aware ranking models are mainly based on search history, especially click data that can be gathered from the search engine logs. Although context-aware models have been widely explored in web search, their influence on search scenarios where click data is highly sparse is relatively unstudied. The focus of this paper, personal search (e.g., email search or on-device search) is one of such scenarios. We evaluate our models using the click data collected from one of the world's largest personal search engines. The experiments demonstrate that the proposed models significantly outperform the baselines which do not take context into account. These results indicate the importance of situational context for personal search, and open up a venue for further exploration of situational context in other search scenarios. View details
    Learning from User Interactions in Personal Search via Attribute Parameterization
    Proceedings of the 10th ACM International Conference on Web Search and Data Mining (WSDM), ACM (2017), pp. 791-800
    Preview abstract User interaction data (e.g., click data) has proven to be a powerful signal for learning-to-rank models in web search. However, such models require observing multiple interactions across many users for the same query-document pair to achieve statistically meaningful gains. Therefore, utilizing user interaction data for improving search over personal, rather than public, content is a challenging problem. First, the documents (e.g., emails or private files) are not shared across users. Second, user search queries are of personal nature (e.g., [alice's address]) and may not generalize well across users. In this paper, we propose a solution to these challenges, by projecting user queries and documents into a multi-dimensional space of fine-grained and semantically coherent attributes. We then introduce a novel parameterization technique to overcome sparsity in the multi-dimensional attribute space. Attribute parameterization enables effective usage of cross-user interactions for improving personal search quality -- which is a first such published result, to the best of our knowledge. Experiments with a dataset derived from interactions of users of one of the worlds' largest personal search engines demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed attribute parameterization technique. View details
    Learning to Rank with Selection Bias in Personal Search
    Proc. of the 39th International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, ACM (2016), pp. 115-124
    Preview abstract Click-through data has proven to be a critical resource for improving search ranking quality. Though a large amount of click data can be easily collected by search engines, various biases make it difficult to fully leverage this type of data. In the past, many click models have been proposed and successfully used to estimate the relevance for individual query-document pairs in the context of web search. These click models typically require a large quantity of clicks for each individual pair and this makes them difficult to apply in systems where click data is highly sparse due to personalized corpora and information needs, e.g., personal search. In this paper, we study the problem of how to leverage sparse click data in personal search and introduce a novel selection bias problem and address it in the learning-to-rank framework. This paper proposes a few bias estimation methods, including a novel query-dependent one that captures queries with similar results and can successfully deal with sparse data. We empirically demonstrate that learning-to-rank that accounts for query-dependent selection bias yields significant improvements in search effectiveness through online experiments with one of the world's largest personal search engines. View details
    Vote calibration in community question-answering systems
    Bee-Chung Chen
    Anirban Dasgupta
    SIGIR '12 Proceedings of the 35th international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval (2012), pp. 781-790
    Preview abstract User votes are important signals in community question-answering (CQA) systems. Many features of typical CQA systems, e.g. the best answer to a question, status of a user, are dependent on ratings or votes cast by the community. In a popular CQA site, Yahoo! Answers, users vote for the best answers to their questions and can also thumb up or down each individual answer. Prior work has shown that these votes provide useful predictors for content quality and user expertise, where each vote is usually assumed to carry the same weight as others. In this paper, we analyze a set of possible factors that indicate bias in user voting behavior -- these factors encompass different gaming behavior, as well as other eccentricities, e.g., votes to show appreciation of answerers. These observations suggest that votes need to be calibrated before being used to identify good answers or experts. To address this problem, we propose a general machine learning framework to calibrate such votes. Through extensive experiments based on an editorially judged CQA dataset, we show that our supervised learning method of content-agnostic vote calibration can significantly improve the performance of answer ranking and expert ranking. View details
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