Troy T. Chinen

Troy T. Chinen

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    An Unsupervised Information-Theoretic Perceptual Quality Metric
    Sangnie Bhardwaj
    Ian Fischer
    Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 33(2020)
    Preview abstract Tractable models of human perception have proved to be challenging to build. Hand-designed models such as MS-SSIM remain popular predictors of human image quality judgements due to their simplicity and speed. Recent modern deep learning approaches can perform better, but they rely on supervised data which can be costly to gather: large sets of class labels such as ImageNet, image quality ratings, or both. We combine recent advances in information-theoretic objective functions with a computational architecture informed by the physiology of the human visual system and unsupervised training on pairs of video frames, yielding our Perceptual Information Metric (PIM). We show that PIM is competitive with supervised metrics on the recent and challenging BAPPS image quality assessment dataset and outperforms them in predicting the ranking of image compression methods in CLIC 2020. We also perform qualitative experiments using the ImageNet-C dataset, and establish that PIM is robust with respect to architectural details. View details
    Preview abstract We propose a method for lossy image compression based on recurrent, convolutional neural networks that outperforms BPG (4:2:0), WebP, JPEG2000, and JPEG as measured by MS-SSIM. We introduce three improvements over previous research that lead to this state-of-the-art result using a single model. First, we show that training with a pixel-wise loss weighted by SSIM increases reconstruction quality according to several metrics. Second, we modify the recurrent architecture to improve spatial diffusion, which allows the network to more effectively capture and propagate image information through the network’s hidden state. Finally, in addition to lossless entropy coding, we use a spatially adaptive bit allocation algorithm to more efficiently use the limited number of bits to encode visually complex image regions. We evaluate our method on the Kodak and Tecnick image sets and compare against standard codecs as well recently published methods based on deep neural networks. View details
    Towards a Semantic Perceptual Image Metric
    Chunhui Gu
    Sung Jin Hwang
    Sergey Ioffe
    Sean O'Malley
    Charles Rosenberg
    2018 25th IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing (ICIP)
    Preview abstract We present a full reference, perceptual image metric based on VGG-16, an artificial neural network trained on object classification. We fit the metric to a new database based on 140k unique images annotated with ground truth by human raters who received minimal instruction. The resulting metric shows competitive performance on TID 2013, a database widely used to assess image quality assessments methods. More interestingly, it shows strong responses to objects potentially carrying semantic relevance such as faces and text, which we demonstrate using a visualization technique and ablation experiments. In effect, the metric appears to model a higher influence of semantic context on judgements, which we observe particularly in untrained raters. As the vast majority of users of image processing systems are unfamiliar with Image Quality Assessment (IQA) tasks, these findings may have significant impact on real-world applications of perceptual metrics. View details
    Spatially adaptive image compression using a tiled deep network
    Michele Covell
    Joel Shor
    Sung Jin Hwang
    Damien Vincent
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Image Processing(2017), pp. 2796-2800
    Preview abstract Deep neural networks represent a powerful class of function approximators that can learn to compress and reconstruct images. Existing image compression algorithms based on neural networks learn quantized representations with a constant spatial bit rate across each image. While entropy coding introduces some spatial variation, traditional codecs have benefited significantly by explicitly adapting the bit rate based on local image complexity and visual saliency. This paper introduces an algorithm that combines deep neural networks with quality-sensitive bit rate adaptation using a tiled network. We demonstrate the importance of spatial context prediction and show improved quantitative (PSNR) and qualitative (subjective rater assessment) results compared to a non-adaptive baseline and a recently published image compression model based on fully-convolutional neural networks. View details
    Preview abstract Personal photo albums are heavily biased towards faces of people, but most state-of-the-art algorithms for image denoising and noise estimation do not exploit facial information. We propose a novel technique for jointly estimating noise levels of all face images in a photo collection. Photos in a personal album are likely to contain several faces of the same people. While some of these photos would be clean and high quality, others may be corrupted by noise. Our key idea is to estimate noise levels by comparing multiple images of the same content that differ predominantly in their noise content. Specifically, we compare geometrically and photometrically aligned face images of the same person. Our estimation algorithm is based on a probabilistic formulation that seeks to maximize the joint probability of estimated noise levels across all images. We propose an approximate solution that decomposes this joint maximization into a two-stage optimization. The first stage determines the relative noise between pairs of images by pooling estimates from corresponding patch pairs in a probabilistic fashion. The second stage then jointly optimizes for all absolute noise parameters by conditioning them upon relative noise levels, which allows for a pairwise factorization of the probability distribution. We evaluate our noise estimation method using quantitative experiments to measure accuracy on synthetic data. Additionally, we employ the estimated noise levels for automatic denoising using "BM3D", and evaluate the quality of denoising on real-world photos through a user study. View details