Thomas K. Leung

Authored Publications
Sort By
  • Title
  • Title, descending
  • Year
  • Year, descending
    Preview abstract Text-guided diffusion models such as DALLE-2, IMAGEN, and Stable Diffusion are able to generate an effectively endless variety of images given only a short text prompt describing the desired image content. In many cases the images are very high quality as well. However, these models often struggle to compose scenes containing several key objects such as characters in specified positional relationships. Unfortunately, this capability to ``direct'' the placement of characters and objects both within and across images is crucial in storytelling, as recognized in the literature on film and animation theory. In this work we take a particularly straightforward approach to providing the needed direction, by injecting ``activation'' at desired positions in the cross-attention maps corresponding to the objects under control, while attenuating the remainder of the map. The resulting approach is a step toward generalizing the applicability of text-guided diffusion models beyond single images to collections of related images, as in storybooks. To the best of our knowledge, our Directed Diffusion method is the first diffusion technique that provides positional control over multiple objects, while making use of an existing pre-trained model and maintaining a coherent blend between the positioned objects and the background. Moreover, it requires only a few lines to implement. View details
    Recognizing Multimodal Entailment (tutorial at ACL 2021)
    Afsaneh Hajiamin Shirazi
    Blaž Bratanič
    Christina Liu
    Gabriel Fedrigo Barcik
    Georg Fritz Osang
    Jared Frank
    Lucas Smaira
    Ricardo Abasolo Marino
    Roma Patel
    Vaiva Imbrasaite
    (2021) (to appear)
    Preview abstract How information is created, shared and consumed has changed rapidly in recent decades, in part thanks to new social platforms and technologies on the web. With ever-larger amounts of unstructured and limited labels, organizing and reconciling information from different sources and modalities is a central challenge in machine learning. This cutting-edge tutorial aims to introduce the multimodal entailment task, which can be useful for detecting semantic alignments when a single modality alone does not suffice for a whole content understanding. Starting with a brief overview of natural language processing, computer vision, structured data and neural graph learning, we lay the foundations for the multimodal sections to follow. We then discuss recent multimodal learning literature covering visual, audio and language streams, and explore case studies focusing on tasks which require fine-grained understanding of visual and linguistic semantics question answering, veracity and hatred classification. Finally, we introduce a new dataset for recognizing multimodal entailment, exploring it in a hands-on collaborative section. Overall, this tutorial gives an overview of multimodal learning, introduces a multimodal entailment dataset, and encourages future research in the topic. View details
    Geo-Aware Networks for Fine-Grained Recognition
    Grace Chu
    Brian Potetz
    Weijun Wang
    Andrew Howard
    Yang Song
    Fernando Andres Brucher
    ICCV 2019
    Preview abstract Fine grained recognition distinguishes among categories with subtle visual differences. To help identify fine grained categories, other information besides images has been used. However, there has been little effort on using geolocation information to improve fine grained classification accuracy. Our contributions to this field are twofold. First, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper which systematically examined various ways of incorporating geolocation information to fine grained images classification - from geolocation priors, to post-processing, to feature modulation. Secondly, to overcome the situation where no fine grained dataset has complete geolocation information, we introduce, and will make public, two fine grained datasets with geolocation by providing complementary information to existing popular datasets - iNaturalist and YFCC100M. Results on these datasets show that, the best geo-aware network can achieve 8.9% top-1 accuracy increase on iNaturalist and 5.9% increase on YFCC100M, compared with image only models' results. In addition, for small image baseline models like Mobilenet V2, the best geo-aware network gives 12.6% higher top-1 accuracy than image only model, achieving even higher performance than Inception V3 models without geolocation. Our work gives incentives to use geolocation information to improve fine grained recognition for both server and on-device models. View details
    Towards a Semantic Perceptual Image Metric
    Chunhui Gu
    Sung Jin Hwang
    Sergey Ioffe
    Sean O'Malley
    Charles Rosenberg
    2018 25th IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing (ICIP)
    Preview abstract We present a full reference, perceptual image metric based on VGG-16, an artificial neural network trained on object classification. We fit the metric to a new database based on 140k unique images annotated with ground truth by human raters who received minimal instruction. The resulting metric shows competitive performance on TID 2013, a database widely used to assess image quality assessments methods. More interestingly, it shows strong responses to objects potentially carrying semantic relevance such as faces and text, which we demonstrate using a visualization technique and ablation experiments. In effect, the metric appears to model a higher influence of semantic context on judgements, which we observe particularly in untrained raters. As the vast majority of users of image processing systems are unfamiliar with Image Quality Assessment (IQA) tasks, these findings may have significant impact on real-world applications of perceptual metrics. View details
    Preview abstract Recent deep networks are capable of memorizing the entire data even when the labels are completely random. To overcome the overfitting on corrupted labels, we propose a novel technique of learning another neural network, called MentorNet, to supervise the training of the base deep networks, namely, StudentNet. During training, MentorNet provides a curriculum (sample weighting scheme) for StudentNet to focus on the sample the label of which is probably correct. Unlike the existing curriculum that is usually predefined by human experts, MentorNet learns a data-driven curriculum dynamically with StudentNet. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach can significantly improve the generalization performance of deep networks trained on corrupted training data. Notably, to the best of our knowledge, we achieve the best-published result on WebVision, a large benchmark containing 2.2 million images of real-world noisy labels. View details
    No Fuss Distance Metric Learning using Proxies
    Alexander Toshev
    Sergey Ioffe
    International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV), IEEE(2017)
    Preview abstract We address the problem of distance metric learning (DML), defined as learning a distance consistent with a notion of semantic similarity. Traditionally, for this problem supervision is expressed in the form of sets of points that follow an ordinal relationship -- an anchor point x is similar to a set of positive points Y, and dissimilar to a set of negative points Z, and a loss defined over these distances is minimized. While the specifics of the optimization differ, in this work we collectively call this type of supervision Triplets and all methods that follow this pattern Triplet-Based methods. These methods are challenging to optimize. A main issue is the need for finding informative triplets, which is usually achieved by a variety of tricks such as increasing the batch size, hard or semi-hard triplet mining, etc. Even with these tricks, the convergence rate of such methods is slow. In this paper we propose to optimize the triplet loss on a different space of triplets, consisting of an anchor data point and similar and dissimilar proxy points which are learned as well. These proxies approximate the original data points, so that a triplet loss over the proxies is a tight upper bound of the original loss. This proxy-based loss is empirically better behaved. As a result, the proxy-loss improves on state-of-art results for three standard zero-shot learning datasets, by up to 15% points, while converging three times as fast as other triplet-based losses. View details
    Improving the Robustness of Deep Neural Networks via Stability Training
    Stephan Zheng
    Yang Song
    Ian Goodfellow
    CVPR'2016, IEEE (to appear)
    Preview abstract In this paper we address the issue of output instability of deep neural networks: small perturbations in the visual input can significantly distort the feature embeddings and output of a neural network. Such instability affects many deep architectures with state-of-the-art performance on a wide range of computer vision tasks. We present a general stability training method to stabilize deep networks against small input distortions that result from various types of common image processing, such as compression, rescaling, and cropping. We validate our method by stabilizing the stateof-the-art Inception architecture [11] against these types of distortions. In addition, we demonstrate that our stabilized model gives robust state-of-the-art performance on largescale near-duplicate detection, similar-image ranking, and classification on noisy datasets. View details
    Preview abstract We present a method for learning an embedding that places images of humans in similar poses nearby. This embedding can be used as a direct method of comparing images based on human pose, avoiding potential challenges of estimating body joint positions. Pose embedding learning is formulated under a triplet-based distance criterion. A deep architecture is used to allow learning of a representation capable of making distinctions between different poses. Experiments on human pose matching and retrieval from video data demonstrate the potential of the method. View details
    Deep Convolutional Ranking for Multilabel Image Annotation
    Yunchao Gong
    Yangqing Jia
    Alexander Toshev
    Sergey Ioffe
    International Conference on Learning Representations(2014) (to appear)
    Large-scale Video Classification with Convolutional Neural Networks
    Andrej Karpathy
    Sanketh Shetty
    Rahul Sukthankar
    Li Fei-Fei
    Proceedings of International Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR 2014), IEEE
    Preview abstract Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have been established as a powerful class of models for image recognition problems. Encouraged by these results, we provide an extensive empirical evaluation of CNNs on large-scale video classification using a dataset of 1 million YouTube videos belonging to 487 classes. We study multiple approaches for extending the connectivity of a CNN in time domain to take advantage of local spatio-temporal information and suggest a multi-resolution, foveated architecture as a promising way of regularizing the learning problem and speeding up training. Our best spatio-temporal networks display significant performance improvements compared to strong feature-based baselines (55.3% to 63.9%), but only a surprisingly modest improvement compared to single-frame models (59.3% to 60.9%). We further study the generalization performance of our best model by retraining the top layers on the UCF-101 action Recognition dataset and observe significant performance improvements compared to the UCF-101 baseline model (63.3% up from 43.9%). View details