# Juan Pablo Vielma

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Performance enhancements for a generic conic interior point algorithm

Chris Coey

Lea Kapelevich

Mathematical Programming Computation, vol. 15 (2023), pp. 53-101

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In recent work, we provide computational arguments for expanding the class of proper cones recognized by conic optimization solvers, to permit simpler, smaller, more natural conic formulations. We define an exotic cone as a proper cone for which we can implement a small set of tractable (i.e. fast, numerically stable, analytic) oracles for a logarithmically homogeneous self-concordant barrier for the cone or for its dual cone. Our extensible, open source conic interior point solver, Hypatia, allows modeling and solving any conic optimization problem over a Cartesian product of exotic cones. In this paper, we introduce Hypatia's interior point algorithm. Our algorithm is based on that of Skajaa and Ye [2015], which we generalize by handling exotic cones without tractable primal oracles. With the goal of improving iteration count and solve time in practice, we propose a sequence of four enhancements to the interior point stepping procedure of Skajaa and Ye [2015]: (1) loosening the central path proximity condition, (2) adjusting the directions using a third order directional derivative barrier oracle, (3) performing a backtracking search on a curve, and (4) combining the prediction and centering directions. We implement 23 useful exotic cones in Hypatia. We summarize the complexity of computing oracles for these cones, showing that our new third order oracle is not a bottleneck, and we derive efficient and numerically stable oracle implementations for several cones. We generate a diverse benchmark set of 379 conic problems from 37 different applied examples. Our computational testing shows that each stepping enhancement improves Hypatia's iteration count and solve time. Altogether, the enhancements reduce the shifted geometric means of iteration count and solve time by over 80% and 70% respectively.
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Computing conjugate barrier information for nonsymmetric cones

Erling D. Andersen

Lea Kapelevich

Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications (2022)

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The recent interior point algorithm by Dahl and Andersen [10] for nonsymmetric cones as well as earlier works [16,19] require derivative information from the conjugate of the barrier function of the cones in the problem. Besides a few special cases, there is no indication of when this information is efficient to evaluate. We show how to compute the gradient of the conjugate barrier function for seven useful nonsymmetric cones. In some cases this is helpful for deriving closed-form expressions for the inverse Hessian operator for the primal barrier.
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Solving natural conic formulations with Hypatia.jl

Chris Coey

Lea Kapelevich

INFORMS Journal on Computing, vol. 34 (2022), pp. 2686-2699

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Many convex optimization problems can be represented through conic extended formulations with auxiliary variables and constraints using only the small number of standard cones recognized by advanced conic solvers such as MOSEK 9. Such extended formulations are often significantly larger and more complex than equivalent conic natural formulations, which can use a much broader class of exotic cones. We define an exotic cone as a proper cone for which we can implement tractable logarithmically homogeneous self-concordant barrier oracles for either the cone or its dual cone. In this paper we introduce Hypatia, a highly-configurable open-source conic primal-dual interior point solver with a generic interface for exotic cones. Hypatia is written in Julia and accessible through JuMP, and currently implements around two dozen useful predefined cones (some with multiple variants). We define some of Hypatia's exotic cones, and for conic constraints over these cones, we analyze techniques for constructing equivalent representations using the standard cones. For optimization problems from a variety of applications, we introduce natural formulations using these exotic cones, and we show that the natural formulations are simpler and lower-dimensional than the equivalent extended formulations. Our computational experiments demonstrate the potential advantages, especially in terms of solve time and memory usage, of solving the natural formulations with Hypatia compared to solving the extended formulations with either Hypatia or MOSEK 9.
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Mixed-integer convex representability

Miles Lubin

Ilias Zadik

Mathematics of Operations Research, vol. 47 (2021), pp. 720-749

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Motivated by recent advances in solution methods for mixed-integer convex optimization (MICP), we study the fundamental and open question of which sets can be represented exactly as feasible regions of MICP problems. We establish several results in this direction, including the first complete characterization for the mixed-binary case and a simple necessary condition for the general case. We use the latter to derive the first non-representability results for various non-convex sets such as the set of rank-1 matrices and the set of prime numbers. Finally, in correspondence with the seminal work on mixed-integer linear representability by Jeroslow and Lowe, we study the representability question under rationality assumptions. Under these rationality assumptions, we establish that representable sets obey strong regularity properties such as periodicity, and we provide a complete characterization of representable subsets of the natural numbers and of representable compact sets. Interestingly, in the case of subsets of natural numbers, our results provide a clear separation between the mathematical modeling power of mixed-integer linear and mixed-integer convex optimization. In the case of compact sets, our results imply that using unbounded integer variables is necessary only for modeling unbounded sets.
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Strong mixed-integer programming formulations for trained neural networks

Will Ma

Mathematical Programming, vol. 183 (2020), pp. 3-39

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We present strong mixed-integer programming (MIP) formulations for high-dimensional piecewise linear functions that correspond to trained neural networks. These formulations can be used for a number of important tasks, such as verifying that an image classification network is robust to adversarial inputs, or solving decision problems where the objective function is a machine learning model. We present a generic framework, which may be of independent interest, that provides a way to construct sharp or ideal formulations for the maximum of d affine functions over arbitrary polyhedral input domains. We apply this result to derive MIP formulations for a number of the most popular nonlinear operations (e.g. ReLU and max pooling) that are strictly stronger than other approaches from the literature. We corroborate this computationally, showing that our formulations are able to offer substantial improvements in solve time on verification tasks for image classification networks.
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The Convex Relaxation Barrier, Revisited: Tightened Single-Neuron Relaxations for Neural Network Verification

Joey Huchette

Krunal K Patel

Will Ma

Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems (2020), pp. 21675-21686

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We improve the effectiveness of propagation- and linear-optimization-based neural network verification algorithms with a new tightened convex relaxation for ReLU neurons. Unlike previous single-neuron relaxations which focus only on the univariate input space of the ReLU, our method considers the multivariate input space of the affine pre-activation function preceding the ReLU. Using results from submodularity and convex geometry, we derive an explicit description of the tightest possible convex relaxation when this multivariate input is over a box domain. We show that our convex relaxation is significantly stronger than the commonly used univariate-input relaxation which has been proposed as a natural convex relaxation barrier for verification. While our description of the relaxation may require an exponential number of inequalities, we show that they can be separated in linear time and hence can be efficiently incorporated into optimization algorithms on an as-needed basis. Based on this novel relaxation, we design two polynomial-time algorithms for neural network verification: a linear-programming-based algorithm that leverages the full power of our relaxation, and a fast propagation algorithm that generalizes existing approaches. In both cases, we show that for a modest increase in computational effort, our strengthened relaxation enables us to verify a significantly larger number of instances compared to similar algorithms.
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Strong mixed-integer programming formulations for trained neural networks

Integer Programming and Combinatorial Optimization - 20th International Conference, IPCO 2019, Ann Arbor, MI, USA, May 22-24, 2019, Proceedings, Springer, pp. 27-42

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We present an ideal mixed-integer programming (MIP) formulation for a rectified linear unit (ReLU) appearing in a trained neural network. Our formulation requires a single binary variable and no additional continuous variables beyond the input and output variables of the ReLU. We contrast it with an ideal “extended” formulation with a linear number of additional continuous variables, derived through standard techniques. An apparent drawback of our formulation is that it requires an exponential number of inequality constraints, but we provide a routine to separate the inequalities in linear time. We also prove that these exponentially-many constraints are facet-defining under mild conditions. Finally, we study network verification problems and observe that dynamically separating from the exponential inequalities (1) is much more computationally efficient and scalable than the extended formulation, (2) decreases the solve time of a state-of-the-art MIP solver by a factor of 7 on smaller instances, and (3) nearly matches the dual bounds of a state-of-the-art MIP solver on harder instances, after just a few rounds of separation and in orders of magnitude less time.
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