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Progressive Partitioning for Parallelized Query Execution in Google’s Napa

Junichi Tatemura
Yanlai Huang
Jim Chen
Yupu Zhang
Kevin Lai
Divyakant Agrawal
Brad Adelberg
Shilpa Kolhar
49th International Conference on Very Large Data Bases, VLDB (2023), pp. 3475-3487


Napa powers Google's critical data warehouse needs. It utilizes Log-Structured Merge Tree (LSM) for real-time data ingestion and achieves sub-second query latency for billions of queries per day. Napa handles a wide variety of query workloads: from full-table scans, to range scans, and multi-key lookups. Our design challenge is to handle this diverse query workload that runs concurrently. In particular, a large percentage of our query volume consists of external reporting queries characterized by multi-key lookups with strict sub-second query latency targets. Query parallelization, which is achieved by processing a query in parallel by partitioning the input data (i.e., the SIMD model of computation), is an important technique to meet the low latency targets. Traditionally, the effectiveness of parallelization of a query is highly dependent on the alignment with the data partitioning established at write time. Unfortunately, such a write-time partitioning scheme cannot handle the highly variable parallelization requirements that are needed on a per-query basis. The key to Napa’s success is its ability to adapt its query parallelization requirements on a per-query basis. This paper describes an index-based approach to perform data partitioning for queries that have sub-second latency requirements. Napa’s approach is progressive in that it can provide good partitioning within the time budgeted for partitioning. Since the end-to-end query time also includes the time to perform partitioning there is a tradeoff in terms of the time spent for partitioning and the resulting evenness of the partitioning. Our approach balances these opposing considerations to provide sub-second querying for billions of queries each day. We use production data to establish the effectiveness of Napa’s approach across easy to handle workloads to the most pathological conditions.