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KAMA-NNs: Low-dimensional Rotation Based Neural Networks

Aldo Pacchiano
Jeffrey Pennington
Yunhao Tang
The 22nd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics (AISTATS 2019)


We present new architectures for feedforward neural networks built from products of learned or random low-dimensional rotations that offer substantial space compression and computational speedups in comparison to the unstructured baselines. Models using them are also competitive with the baselines and often, due to imposed orthogonal structure, outperform baselines accuracy-wise. We propose to use our architectures in two settings. We show that in the non-adaptive scenario (random neural networks) they lead to asymptotically more accurate, space-efficient and faster estimators of the so-called PNG-kernels (for any activation function defining the PNG). This generalizes several recent theoretical results about orthogonal estimators (e.g. orthogonal JLTs, orthogonal estimators of angular kernels and more). In the adaptive setting we propose efficient algorithms for learning products of low-dimensional rotations and show how our architectures can be used to improve space and time complexity of state of the art reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms (e.g. PPO, TRPO). Here they offer up to 7x compression of the network in comparison to the unstructured baselines and outperform reward-wise state of the art structured neural networks offering similar computational gains and based on low displacement rank matrices.

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