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Fermionic partial tomography via classical shadows

Akimasa Miyake
Andrew Zhao
arXiv:2010.16094 (2020)


We propose a tomographic protocol for estimating any $ k $-body reduced density matrix ($ k $-RDM) of an $ n $-mode fermionic state, a ubiquitous step in near-term quantum algorithms for simulating many-body physics, chemistry, and materials. Our approach extends the framework of classical shadows, a randomized approach to learning a collection of quantum state properties, to the fermionic setting. Our sampling protocol uses randomized measurement settings generated by a discrete group of fermionic Gaussian unitaries, implementable with linear-depth circuits. We prove that estimating all $ k $-RDM elements to additive precision $ \varepsilon $ requires on the order of $ \binom{n}{k} k^{3/2} \log(n) / \varepsilon^2 $ repeated state preparations, which is optimal up to the logarithmic factor. Furthermore, numerical calculations show that our protocol offers a substantial improvement in constant overheads for $ k \geq 2 $, as compared to prior deterministic strategies. We also adapt our method to particle-number symmetry, wherein the additional circuit depth may be halved at the cost of roughly 2--5 times more repetitions.