Jump to Content

Deep 3D-to-2D Watermarking: Embedding Messages in 3D Meshes and Extracting Them from 2D Renderings

Ce Liu
Huiwen Chang
Innfarn Yoo
Ondrej Stava
Xiyang Luo
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (2022)

Abstract

Digital watermarking is widely used for copyright protection. Traditional 3D watermarking approaches or commercial software are typically designed to embed messages into 3D meshes, and later retrieve the messages directly from distorted/undistorted watermarked 3D meshes. However, in many cases, users only have access to rendered 2D images instead of 3D meshes. Unfortunately, retrieving messages from 2D renderings of 3D meshes is still challenging and underexplored. We introduce a novel end-toend learning framework to solve this problem through: 1) an encoder to covertly embed messages in both mesh geometry and textures; 2) a differentiable renderer to render watermarked 3D objects from different camera angles and under varied lighting conditions; 3) a decoder to recover the messages from 2D rendered images. From our experiments, we show that our model can learn to embed information visually imperceptible to humans, and to retrieve the embedded information from 2D renderings that undergo 3D distortions. In addition, we demonstrate that our method can also work with other renderers, such as ray tracers and real-time renderers with and without fine-tuning.

Research Areas