Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision 2024 (2024) (to appear)
We propose Hierarchical Text Spotter (HTS), the first method for the joint task of word-level text spotting and geometric layout analysis.
HTS can annotate text in images with a hierarchical representation of 4 levels: character, word, line, and paragraph.
The proposed HTS is characterized by two novel components:
(1) a Unified-Detector-Polygon (UDP) that produces Bezier Curve polygons of text lines and an affinity matrix for paragraph grouping between detected lines;
(2) a Line-to-Character-to-Word (L2C2W) recognizer that splits lines into characters and further merges them back into words.
HTS achieves state-of-the-art results on multiple word-level text spotting benchmark datasets as well as geometric layout analysis tasks.
Code will be released upon acceptance.View details
ICDAR 2023: International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition (2023)
We organize a competition on hierarchical text detection and recognition. The competition is aimed to promote research into deep learning models and systems that can simultaneously perform text detection and recognition and geometric layout analysis. We present details of the proposed competition organization, including tasks, datasets, evaluations, and schedule. During the competition period (from January 2nd 2023 to April 1st 2023), at least 50 submissions from more than 30 teams were made in the 2 proposed tasks. Considering the number of teams and submissions, we conclude that the HierText competition has been successfully held. In this report, we will also present the competition results and insights from them.View details
The recent advent of self-supervised pre-training techniques has led to a surge in the use of multimodal learning in form document understanding. However, existing approaches that extend the mask language modeling to other modalities require careful multi-task tuning, complex reconstruction target designs, or additional pre-training data. In FormNetV2, we introduce a centralized multimodal graph contrastive learning strategy to unify self-supervised pre-training for all modalities in one loss. The graph contrastive objective maximizes the agreement of multimodal representations, providing a natural interplay for all modalities without special customization. In addition, we extract image features within the bounding box that joins a pair of tokens connected by a graph edge, capturing more targeted visual cues without loading a sophisticated and separately pre-trained image embedder. FormNetV2 establishes new state-of-the-art performance on FUNSD, CORD, SROIE and Payment benchmarks with a more compact model size.View details
Scene text detection and document layout analysis have long been treated as two separate tasks in different image domains. In this paper, we bring them together and introduce the task of unified scene text detection and layout analysis. The first hierarchical scene text dataset is introduced to enable this novel research task. We also propose a novel method that is able to simultaneously detect scene text and form text clusters in a unified way. Comprehensive experiments show that our unified model achieves better performance than multiple well-designed baseline methods. Additionally, this model achieves stateof-the-art results on multiple scene text detection datasets without the need of complex post-processing. Dataset and code: https://github.com/google-researchdatasets/hiertext.View details
Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL) (2021)
Natural reading orders of words are crucial for information extraction from form-like documents. Despite recent advances in Graph Convolutional Networks (GCNs) on modeling spatial layout patterns of documents, they have limited ability to capture reading orders of given word-level node representations in a graph. We propose Reading Order Equivariant Positional Encoding (ROPE), a new positional encoding technique designed to apprehend the sequential presentation of words in documents. ROPE generates unique reading order codes for neighboring words relative to the target word given a word-level graph connectivity. We study two fundamental document entity extraction tasks including word labeling and word grouping on the public FUNSD dataset and a large-scale payment dataset. We show that ROPE consistently improves existing GCNs with a margin up to 8.4% F1-score.View details
We propose an end-to-end trainable network that can simultaneously detect and recognize text of arbitrary curved path, making substantial progress on the open problem of reading scene text of irregular shape. We formulate arbitrary shape text detection as an instance segmentation problem; an attention model is then used to decode the textual content of each irregularly shaped text region without rectification. To extract useful irregularly shaped text instance features from image scale features, we propose a simple yet effective RoI masking step. Finally, we show that predictions from an existing multi-step OCR engine can be leveraged as partially labeled training data, which leads to significant improvements in both the detection and recognition accuracy of our model. Our method surpasses the state-of-the-art for end-to-end recognition tasks on the ICDAR15 (straight) benchmark by 4.6%, and on the Total-Text (curved) benchmark by more than 16%.View details
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