Badih Ghazi

I am a Research Scientist in the Algorithms & Optimization Team at Google. Here's a link to my personal webpage
Authored Publications
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    Differentially Private All-Pairs Shortest Path Distances: Improved Algorithms and Lower Bounds
    Jelani Osei Nelson
    Justin Y. Chen
    Ravi Kumar
    Shyam Narayanan
    Yinzhan Xu
    SODA 2023 (to appear)
    Preview abstract We study the problem of releasing the weights of all-pairs shortest paths in a weighted undirected graph with differential privacy (DP). In this setting, the underlying graph is fixed and two graphs are neighbors if their edge weights differ by at most 1 in the ℓ1-distance. We give an algorithm with additive error ̃O(n^2/3/ε) in the ε-DP case and an algorithm with additive error ̃O(√n/ε) in the (ε, δ)-DP case, where n denotes the number of vertices. This positively answers a question of Sealfon [Sea16, Sea20], who asked whether a o(n) error algorithm exists. We also show that an additive error of Ω(n1/6) is necessary for any sufficiently small ε, δ > 0. Furthermore, we show that if the graph is promised to have reasonably bounded weights, one can improve the error further to roughly n^{(√17−3)/2+o(1)}/ε in the ε-DP case and roughly n^{√2−1+o(1)}/ε in the (ε, δ)-DP case. Previously, it was only known how to obtain ̃O(n2/3/ε1/3) additive error in the ε-DP case and ̃O(√n/ε) additive error in the (ε, δ)-DP case for bounded-weight graphs [Sea16]. Finally, we consider a relaxation where a multiplicative approximation is allowed. We show that, with a multiplicative approximation factor k, the additive error can be reduced to ̃O(n^{1/2+O(1/k)}/ε) in the ε-DP case and ̃O(n^{1/3+O(1/k)}/ε) in the (ε, δ)-DP case. View details
    Preview abstract In this work, we study the task of estimating the numbers of distinct and k-occurring items in a time window under the constraint of differential privacy (DP). We consider several variants depending on whether the queries are on general time windows (between times t1 and t2), or are restricted to being cumulative (between times 1 and t2), and depending on whether the DP neighboring relation is event-level or the more stringent item-level. We obtain nearly tight upper and lower bounds on the errors of DP algorithms for these problems. En route, we obtain an event-level DP algorithm for estimating, at each time step, the number of distinct items seen over the last W updates with error polylogarithmic in W; this answers an open question of Bolot et al. (ICDT 2013). View details
    Leveraging Bias-Variance Trade-offs for Regression with Label Differential Privacy
    Ashwinkumar Badanidiyuru Varadaraja
    Avinash Varadarajan
    Chiyuan Zhang
    Ethan Leeman
    Pritish Kamath
    Ravi Kumar
    NeurIPS 2023(2023)
    Preview abstract We propose a new family of label randomization mechanisms for the task of training regression models under the constraint of label differential privacy (DP). In particular, we leverage the trade-offs between bias and variance to construct better noising mechanisms depending on a privately estimated prior distribution over the labels. We demonstrate that these mechanisms achieve state-of-the-art privacy-accuracy trade-offs on several datasets, highlighting the importance of bias-reducing constraints when training neural networks with label DP. We also provide theoretical results shedding light on the structural properties of the optimal bias-reduced mechanisms. View details
    Algorithms with More Granular Differential Privacy Guarantees
    Ravi Kumar Ravikumar
    Thomas Alexander Steinke
    ITCS 2023 (to appear)
    Preview abstract Differential privacy is often applied with a privacy parameter that is larger than the theory suggests is ideal; various informal justifications for tolerating large privacy parameters have been proposed. In this work, we consider partial differential privacy (DP), which allows quantifying the privacy guarantee on a per-attribute basis. In this framework, we study several basic data analysis and learning tasks, and design algorithms whose per-attribute privacy parameter is smaller that the best possible privacy parameter for the entire record of a person (i.e., all the attributes). View details
    Preview abstract In social choice theory, (Kemeny) rank aggregation is a well-studied problem where the goal is to combine rankings from multiple voters into a single ranking on the same set of items. Since rankings can reveal preferences of voters (which a voter might like to keep private), it is important to aggregate preferences in such a way to preserve privacy. In this work, we present differentially private algorithms for rank aggregation in the pure and approximate settings along with distribution-independent utility upper and lower bounds. In addition to bounds in the central model, we also present utility bounds for the local model of differential privacy. View details
    Preview abstract In this work, we study the large-scale pretraining of BERT-Large~\citep{devlin2018bert} with differentially private SGD (DP-SGD). We show that combined with a careful implementation, scaling up the batch size to millions (i.e., mega-batches) improves the utility of the DP-SGD step for BERT; we also enhance the training efficiency by using an increasing batch size schedule. Our implementation builds on the recent work of \citet{subramani20}, who demonstrated that the overhead of a DP-SGD step is minimized with effective use of JAX \cite{jax2018github, frostig2018compiling} primitives in conjunction with the XLA compiler \cite{xladocs}. Our implementation achieves a masked language model accuracy of 60.5\% at a batch size of 2M, for $\eps = 5$, which is a reasonable privacy setting. To put this number in perspective, non-private BERT models achieve an accuracy of $\sim$70\%. View details
    Preview abstract We study the problem of privately computing the \emph{anonymized histogram} (aka \emph{unattributed histogram}), which is defined as the histogram without item labels. Previous works have provided algorithms with $\ell_1$ and $\ell_2$ errors of $O_\eps(\sqrt{n})$ in the central model of differential privacy (DP). In this work, we provide an algorithm with a nearly matching error guarantee of $\tilde{O}_\eps(\sqrt{n})$ in the shuffle and pan private DP models. Our algorithm is very simple: it just post-processes the discrete Laplace-noised histogram! Using this algorithm as a subroutine, we show applications in estimating several symmetric properties of distributions such as the entropy and support size. View details
    Preview abstract In this paper we consider the problem of aggregating multiple user-generated tracks in a differentially private manner. For this problem we propose a new aggregation algorithm that adds noise sufficient enough to guarantee privacy while preserving the utility of the aggregate. Under natural and simple assumptions, we also show that this algorithm has provably good guarantees. View details
    Distributed, Private, Sparse Histograms in the Two-Server Model
    Adria Gascon
    James Bell
    Mariana Raykova
    Phillipp Schoppmann
    Ravi Kumar Ravikumar
    CCS 2022
    Preview abstract We consider the computation of sparse, (ε, ϑ)-differentially private~(DP) histograms in the two-server model of secure multi-party computation~(MPC), which has recently gained traction in the context of privacy-preserving measurements of aggregate user data. We introduce protocols that enable two semi-honest non-colluding servers to compute histograms over the data held by multiple users, while only learning a private view of the data. Our solution achieves the same asymptotic l∞-error of O(log(1/ϑ)/ε) as in the central model of DP, but without relying on a trusted curator. The server communication and computation costs of our protocol are independent of the number of histogram buckets, and are linear in the number of users, while the client cost is independent of the number of users, ε, and ϑ. Its linear dependence on the number of users lets our protocol scale well, which we confirm using microbenchmarks: for a billion users, ε = 0.5, and ϑ = 10-11, the per-user cost of our protocol is only 1.08 ms of server computation and 339 bytes of communication. In contrast, a baseline protocol using garbled circuits only allows up to 106 users, where it requires 600 KB communication per user. View details
    Private Isotonic Regression
    Pritish Kamath
    Ravi Kumar Ravikumar
    NeurIPS 2022
    Preview abstract In this paper, we consider the problem of differentially private (DP) algorithms for isotonic regression. For the most general problem of isotonic regression over a partially ordered set (poset) X and for any Lipschitz loss function, we obtain a pure-DP algorithm that, given n input points, has an expected excess empirical risk of roughly width(X)⋅log|X|/n, where width(X) is the width of the poset. In contrast, we also obtain a near-matching lower bound of roughly (width(X)+log|X|)/n, that holds even for approximate-DP algorithms. Moreover, we show that the above bounds are essentially the best that can be obtained without utilizing any further structure of the poset. In the special case of a totally ordered set and for ℓ1 and ℓ2^2 losses, our algorithm can be implemented in near-linear running time; we also provide extensions of this algorithm to the problem of private isotonic regression with additional structural constraints on the output function. View details