Scaling Up LLM Reviews for Google Ads Content Moderation

Ariel Fuxman
Chih-Chun Chia
Dongjin Kwon
Enming Luo
Mehmet Tek
Ranjay Krishna
Tiantian Fang
Tushar Dogra
Yu-Han Lyu
Google Scholar


Large language models (LLMs) are powerful tools for content moderation but LLM inference costs and latency on large volumes of data, such as the Google Ads repository, are prohibitive for their casual usage. This study is focused on scaling up LLM reviews for content moderation in Google Ads. First, we use heuristics to select candidates via filtering and duplicate removal, and create clusters of ads for which we select one representative ad per cluster. Then, LLMs are used to review only the representative ads. Finally we propagate the LLM decisions for representative ads back to their clusters. This method reduces the number of reviews by more than 3 orders of magnitude while achieving a 2x recall compared to a non-LLM model as a baseline. Note that, the success of this approach is a strong function of the representations used in clustering and label propagation; we observed that cross-modal similarity representations yield better results than uni-modal representations.