Query Language Modeling for Voice Search
The paper presents an empirical exploration of google.com query stream language modeling. We describe the normalization of the typed query stream resulting in out-of-vocabulary (OoV) rates below 1% for a one million word vocabulary. We present a comprehensive set of experiments that guided the design decisions for a voice search service. In the process we re-discovered a less known interaction between Kneser-Ney smoothing and entropy pruning, and found empirical evidence that hints at non-stationarity of the query stream, as well as strong dependence on various English locales---USA, Britain and Australia.