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HyperPrompt: Prompt-based Task-Conditioning of Transformers

Cosmo Du
Steven Zheng
Vamsi Aribandi
Yi Tay
Yun He
Zhao Chen
ICML (2022)


Prompt-tuning is becoming a new paradigm for finetuning pre-trained language models in a parameter-efficient way. Here, we explore the use of HyperNetworks to generate prompts. We propose a novel architecture of HyperPrompt: prompt-based task-conditioned parameterization of self-attention in Transformers. We show that HyperPrompt is very competitive against strong multi-task learning baselines with only 1% of additional task-conditioning parameters. The prompts are end-to-end learnable via generation by a HyperNetwork. The additional parameters scale sub-linearly with the number of downstream tasks, which makes it very parameter efficient for multi-task learning. Hyper-Prompt allows the network to learn task-specific feature maps where the prompts serve as task global memories. Information sharing is enabled among tasks through the HyperNetwork to alleviate task conflicts during co-training. Through extensive empirical experiments, we demonstrate that HyperPrompt can achieve superior performances over strong T5 multi-task learning base-lines and parameter-efficient adapter variants including Prompt-Tuning on Natural Language Understanding benchmarks of GLUE and Super-GLUE across all the model sizes explored.