Convolutional, Long Short-Term Memory, Fully Connected Deep Neural Networks

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Both Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) and Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) have shown improvements over Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) across a wide variety of speech recognition tasks. CNNs, LSTMs and DNNs are complementary in their modeling capabilities, as CNNs are good at reducing frequency variations, LSTMs are good at temporal modeling, and DNNs are appropriate for mapping features to a more separable space. In this paper, we take advantage of the complementarity of CNNs, LSTMs and DNNs by combining them into one unified architecture. We explore the proposed architecture, which we call CLDNN, on a variety of large vocabulary tasks, varying from 200 to 2,000 hours. We find that the CLDNN provides a 4-6% relative improvement in WER over an LSTM, the strongest of the three individual models.