Steven Hand

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    Preview abstract We present the design of a new large scale orchestration layer for accelerators. Our system, Pathways, is explicitly designed to enable exploration of new systems and ML research ideas, while retaining state of the art performance for current models. Pathways uses a sharded dataflow graph of asynchronous operators that consume and produce futures, and efficiently gang-schedules heterogeneous parallel computations on thousands of accelerators while coordinating data transfers over their dedicated interconnects. Pathways makes use of a novel asynchronous distributed dataflow design that lets the control plane execute in parallel despite dependencies in the data plane. This design, with careful engineering, allows Pathways to adopt a single-controller model that makes it easier to express complex new parallelism patterns. We demonstrate that Pathways can achieve performance parity (~100% accelerator utilization) with state-of-the-art systems when running SPMD computations over 2048 TPUs, while also delivering throughput comparable to the SPMD case for Transformer models that are pipelined across 16 stages, or sharded across two islands of accelerators connected over a data center network. View details
    Borg: the Next Generation
    Muhammad Tirmazi
    Adam Barker
    Md Ehtesam Haque
    Zhijing Gene Qin
    Mor Harchol-Balter
    EuroSys'20, ACM, Heraklion, Crete(2020)
    Preview abstract This paper analyzes a newly-published trace that covers 8 different Borg clusters for the month of May 2019. The trace enables researchers to explore how scheduling works in large-scale production compute clusters. We highlight how Borg has evolved and perform a longitudinal comparison of the newly-published 2019 trace against the 2011 trace, which has been highly cited within the research community. Our findings show that Borg features such as alloc sets are used for resource-heavy workloads; automatic vertical scaling is effective; job-dependencies account for much of the high failure rates reported by prior studies; the workload arrival rate has increased, as has the use of resource over-commitment; the workload mix has changed, jobs have migrated from the free tier into the best-effort batch tier; the workload exhibits an extremely heavy-tailed distribution where the top 1% of jobs consume over 99% of resources; and there is a great deal of variation between different clusters. View details
    Autopilot: Workload Autoscaling at Google Scale
    Paweł Findeisen
    Jacek Świderski
    Przemyslaw Broniek
    Beata Strack
    Piotr Witusowski
    Proceedings of the Fifteenth European Conference on Computer Systems, Association for Computing Machinery(2020) (to appear)
    Preview abstract In many public and private Cloud systems, users need to specify a limit for the amount of resources (CPU cores and RAM) to provision for their workloads. A job that exceeds its limits might be throttled or killed, resulting in delaying or dropping end-user requests, so human operators naturally err on the side of caution and request a larger limit than the job needs. At scale, this results in massive aggregate resource wastage. To address this, Google uses Autopilot to configure resources automatically, adjusting both the number of concurrent tasks in a job (horizontal scaling) and the CPU/memory limits for individual tasks (vertical scaling). Autopilot walks the same fine line as human operators: its primary goal is to reduce slack – the difference between the limit and the actual resource usage – while minimizing the risk that a task is killed with an out-of-memory (OOM) error or its performance degraded because of CPU throttling. Autopilot uses machine learning algorithms applied to historical data about prior executions of a job, plus a set of finely-tuned heuristics, to walk this line. In practice, Autopiloted jobs have a slack of just 23%, compared with 46% for manually-managed jobs. Additionally, Autopilot reduces the number of jobs severely impacted by OOMs by a factor of 10. Despite its advantages, ensuring that Autopilot was widely adopted took significant effort, including making potential recommendations easily visible to customers who had yet to opt in, automatically migrating certain categories of jobs, and adding support for custom recommenders. At the time of writing, Autopiloted jobs account for over 48% of Google's fleet-wide resource usage. View details
    Firmament: Fast, Centralized Cluster Scheduling at Scale
    Ionel Gog
    Malte Schwarzkopf
    Adam Gleave
    Robert N. M. Watson
    12th USENIX Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI 16), USENIX Association(2016), pp. 99-115 (to appear)
    Preview abstract Centralized datacenter schedulers can make high-quality placement decisions when scheduling tasks in a cluster. Today, however, high-quality placements come at the cost of high latency at scale, which degrades response time for interactive tasks and reduces cluster utilization. This paper describes Firmament, a centralized scheduler that scales to over ten thousand machines at subsecond placement latency even though it continuously reschedules all tasks via a min-cost max-flow (MCMF) optimization. Firmament achieves low latency by using multiple MCMF algorithms, by solving the problem incrementally, and via problem-specific optimizations. Experiments with a Google workload trace from a 12,500-machine cluster show that Firmament improves placement latency by 20× over Quincy [22], a prior centralized scheduler using the same MCMF optimization. Moreover, even though Firmament is centralized, it matches the placement latency of distributed schedulers for workloads of short tasks. Finally, Firmament exceeds the placement quality of four widely-used centralized and distributed schedulers on a real-world cluster, and hence improves batch task response time by 6× View details