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Jeffrey C. Mogul

Jeffrey C. Mogul

Jeff Mogul works on fast, cheap, reliable, and flexible networking infrastructure for Google. Until 2013, he was Fellow at HP Labs, doing research primarily on computer networks and operating systems issues for enterprise and cloud computer systems; previously, he worked at the DEC/Compaq Western Research Lab. He received his PhD from Stanford in 1986, an MS from Stanford in 1980, and an SB from MIT in 1979. He is an ACM Fellow. Jeff is the author or co-author of several Internet Standards; he contributed extensively to the HTTP/1.1 specification. He was an associate editor of Internetworking: Research and Experience, and has been the chair or co-chair of a variety of conferences and workshops, including SIGCOMM, OSDI, NSDI, USENIX, HotOS, and ANCS. You can find a mostly up-to-date CV at http://jmogul.com/mogulcv.pdf
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    Physical Deployability Matters
    Proc. HotNets 2023: Twenty-Second ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks
    Preview abstract While many network research papers address issues of deployability, with a few exceptions, this has been limited to protocol compatibility or switch-resource constraints, such as flow table sizes. We argue that good network designs must also consider the costs and complexities of deploying the design within the constraints of the physical environment in a datacenter: \emph{physical} deployability. The traditional metrics of network ``goodness'' mostly do not account for these costs and constraints, and this may partially explain why some otherwise attractive designs have not been deployed in real-world datacenters. View details
    Change Management in Physical Network Lifecycle Automation
    Virginia Beauregard
    Kevin Grant
    Angus Griffith
    Jahangir Hasan
    Chen Huang
    Quan Leng
    Jiayao Li
    Alexander Lin
    Zhoutao Liu
    Ahmed Mansy
    Bill Martinusen
    Nikil Mehta
    Andrew Narver
    Anshul Nigham
    Melanie Obenberger
    Sean Smith
    Kurt Steinkraus
    Sheng Sun
    Edward Thiele
    Proc. 2023 USENIX Annual Technical Conference (USENIX ATC 23)
    Preview abstract Automated management of a physical network's lifecycle is critical for large networks. At Google, we manage network design, construction, evolution, and management via multiple automated systems. In our experience, one of the primary challenges is to reliably and efficiently manage change in this domain -- additions of new hardware and connectivity, planning and sequencing of topology mutations, introduction of new architectures, new software systems and fixes to old ones, etc. We especially have learned the importance of supporting multiple kinds of change in parallel without conflicts or mistakes (which cause outages) while also maintaining parallelism between different teams and between different processes. We now know that this requires automated support. This paper describes some of our network lifecycle goals, the automation we have developed to meet those goals, and the change-management challenges we encountered. We then discuss in detail our approaches to several specific kinds of change management: (1) managing conflicts between multiple operations on the same network; (2) managing conflicts between operations spanning the boundaries between networks; (3) managing representational changes in the models that drive our automated systems. These approaches combine both novel software systems and software-engineering practices. While this paper reports on our experience with large-scale datacenter network infrastructures, we are also applying the same tools and practices in several adjacent domains, such as the management of WAN systems, of machines, and of datacenter physical designs. Our approaches are likely to be useful at smaller scales, too. View details
    Preview abstract We (Google's networking teams) would like to increase our collaborations with academic researchers related to data-driven networking research. There are some significant constraints on our ability to directly share data, and in case not everyone in the community understands these, this document provides a brief summary. There are some models which can work (primarily, interns and visiting scientists). We describe some specific areas where we would welcome proposals to work within those models View details
    Preview abstract We are accustomed to thinking of computers as fail-stop, especially the cores that execute instructions, and most system software implicitly relies on that assumption. During most of the VLSI era, processors that passed manufacturing tests and were operated within specifications have insulated us from this fiction. As fabrication pushes towards smaller feature sizes and more elaborate computational structures, and as increasingly specialized instruction-silicon pairings are introduced to improve performance, we have observed ephemeral computational errors that were not detected during manufacturing tests. These defects cannot always be mitigated by techniques such as microcode updates, and may be correlated to specific components within the processor, allowing small code changes to effect large shifts in reliability. Worse, these failures are often "silent'': the only symptom is an erroneous computation. We refer to a core that develops such behavior as "mercurial.'' Mercurial cores are extremely rare, but in a large fleet of servers we can observe the correlated disruption they cause, often enough to see them as a distinct problem -- one that will require collaboration between hardware designers, processor vendors, and systems software architects. This paper is a call-to-action for a new focus in systems research; we speculate about several software-based approaches to mercurial cores, ranging from better detection and isolating mechanisms, to methods for tolerating the silent data corruption they cause. Please watch our short video summarizing the paper. View details
    Preview abstract To reduce cost, datacenter network operators are exploring blocking network designs. An example of such a design is a "spine-free" form of a Fat-Tree, in which pods directly connect to each other, rather than via spine blocks. To maintain application-perceived performance in the face of dynamic workloads, these new designs must be able to reconfigure routing and the inter-pod topology. Gemini is a system designed to achieve these goals on commodity hardware while reconfiguring the network infrequently, rendering these blocking designs practical enough for deployment in the near future. The key to Gemini is the joint optimization of topology and routing, using as input a robust estimation of future traffic derived from multiple historical traffic matrices. Gemini “hedges” against unpredicted bursts, by spreading these bursts across multiple paths, to minimize packet loss in exchange for a small increase in path lengths. It incorporates a robust decision algorithm to determine when to reconfigure, and whether to use hedging. Data from tens of production fabrics allows us to categorize these as either low- or high-volatility; these categories seem stable. For the former, Gemini finds topologies and routing with near-optimal performance and cost. For the latter, Gemini’s use of multi-traffic-matrix optimization and hedging avoids the need for frequent topology reconfiguration, with only marginal increases in path length. As a result, Gemini can support existing workloads on these production fabrics using a spine-free topology that is half the cost of the existing topology on these fabrics. View details
    Preview abstract Network management is becoming increasingly automated, and automation depends on detailed, explicit representations of data about both the state of a network, and about an operator’s intent for its networks. In particular, we must explicitly represent the desired and actual topology of a network; almost all other network-management data either derives from its topology, constrains how to use a topology, or associates resources (e.g., addresses) with specific places in a topology. We describe MALT, a Multi-Abstraction-Layer Topology representation, which supports virtually all of our network management phases: design, deployment, configuration, operation, measurement, and analysis. MALT provides interoperability across software systems, and its support for abstraction allows us to explicitly tie low-level network elements to high-level design intent. MALT supports a declarative style that simplifies what-if analysis and testbed support. We also describe the software base that supports efficient use of MALT, as well as numerous, sometimes painful lessons we have learned about curating the taxonomy for a comprehensive, and evolving, representation for topology. View details
    Nines are Not Enough: Meaningful Metrics for Clouds
    Proc. 17th Workshop on Hot Topics in Operating Systems (HoTOS) (2019)
    Preview abstract Cloud customers want reliable, understandable promises from cloud providers that their applications will run reliably and with adequate performance, but today, providers offer only limited guarantees, which creates uncertainty for customers. Providers also must define internal metrics to allow them to operate their systems without violating customer promises or expectations. We explore why these guarantees are hard to define. We show that this problem shares some similarities with the challenges of applying statistics to make decisions based on sampled data. We also suggest that defining guarantees in terms of defense against threats, rather than guarantees for application-visible outcomes, can reduce the complexity of these problems. Overall, we offer a partial framework for thinking about Service Level Objectives (SLOs), and discuss some unsolved challenges. View details
    Minimal Rewiring: Efficient Live Expansion for Clos Data Center Networks
    Shizhen Zhao
    Joon Ong
    Proc. 16th USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI 2019), USENIX Association (to appear)
    Preview abstract Clos topologies have been widely adopted for large-scale data center networks (DCNs), but it has been difficult to support incremental expansions of Clos DCNs. Some prior work has assumed that it is impossible to design DCN topologies that are both well-structured (non-random) and incrementally expandable at arbitrary granularities. We demonstrate that it is indeed possible to design such networks, and to expand them while they are carrying live traffic, without incurring packet loss. We use a layer of patch panels between blocks of switches in a Clos network, which makes physical rewiring feasible, and we describe how to use integer linear programming (ILP) to minimize the number of patch-panel connections that must be changed, which makes expansions faster and cheaper. We also describe a block-aggregation technique that makes our ILP approach scalable. We tested our "minimal-rewiring" solver on two kinds of fine-grained expansions using 2250 synthetic DCN topologies, and found that the solver can handle 99% of these cases while changing under 25% of the connections. Compared to prior approaches, this solver (on average) reduces the number of "stages" per expansion by about 3.1X -- a significant improvement to our operational costs, and to our exposure (during expansions) to capacity-reducing faults. View details
    Preview abstract We increasingly depend on the availability of online services, either directly as users, or indirectly, when cloud-provider services support directly-accessed services. The availability of these "visible services" depends in complex ways on the availability of a complex underlying set of invisible infrastructure services. In our experience, most software engineers lack useful frameworks to create and evaluate designs for individual services that support end-to-end availability in these infrastructures, especially given cost, performance, and other constraints on viable commercial services. Even given the extensive research literature on techniques for replicated state machines and other fault-tolerance mechanisms, we found little help in this literature for addressing infrastructure-wide availability. Past research has often focused on point solutions, rather than end-to-end ones. In particular, it seems quite difficult to define useful targets for infrastructure-level availability, and then to translate these to design requirements for individual services. We argue that, in many but not all ways, one can think about availability with the mindset that we have learned to use for security, and we discuss some general techniques that appear useful for implementing and operating high-availability infrastructures. We encourage a shift in emphasis for academic research into availability. View details
    Inferring the Network Latency Requirements of Cloud Tenants
    Ramana Rao Kompella
    15th Workshop on Hot Topics in Operating Systems (HotOS XV), USENIX Association (2015)
    Preview abstract Cloud IaaS and PaaS tenants rely on cloud providers to provide network infrastructures that make the appropriate tradeoff between cost and performance. This can include mechanisms to help customers understand the performance requirements of their applications. Previous research (e.g., Proteus and Cicada) has shown how to do this for network-bandwidth demands, but cloud tenants may also need to meet latency objectives, which in turn may depend on reliable limits on network latency, and its variance, within the cloud providers infrastructure. On the other hand, if network latency is sufficient for an application, further decreases in latency might add cost without any benefit. Therefore, both tenant and provider have an interest in knowing what network latency is good enough for a given application. This paper explores several options for a cloud provider to infer a tenants network-latency demands, with varying tradeoffs between requirements for tenant participation, accuracy of inference, and instrumentation overhead. In particular, we explore the feasibility of a hypervisor-only mechanism, which would work without any modifications to tenant code, even in IaaS clouds. View details
    Condor: Better Topologies through Declarative Design
    Brandon Schlinker
    Radhika Niranjan Mysore
    Sean Smith
    Amin Vahdat
    Minlan Yu
    Ethan Katz-Bassett
    Michael Rubin
    Sigcomm '15, Google Inc (2015)
    Preview abstract The design space for large, multipath datacenter networks is large and complex, and no one design fits all purposes. Network architects must trade off many criteria to design cost-effective, reliable, and maintainable networks, and typically cannot explore much of the design space. We present Condor, our approach to enabling a rapid, efficient design cycle. Condor allows architects to express their requirements as constraints via a Topology Description Language (TDL), rather than having to directly specify network structures. Condor then uses constraint-based synthesis to rapidly generate candidate topologies, which can be analyzed against multiple criteria. We show that TDL supports concise descriptions of topologies such as fat-trees, BCube, and DCell; that we can generate known and novel variants of fat-trees with simple changes to a TDL file; and that we can synthesize large topologies in tens of seconds. We also show that Condor supports the daunting task of designing multi-phase network expansions that can be carried out on live networks. View details
    Flexible Network Bandwidth and Latency Provisioning in the Datacenter
    Vimalkumar Jeyakumar
    Abdul Kabbani
    Amin Vahdat
    arxiv.org (2014)
    Preview abstract Predictably sharing the network is critical to achieving high utilization in the datacenter. Past work has focussed on providing bandwidth to endpoints, but often we want to allocate resources among multi-node services. In this paper, we present Parley, which provides service-centric minimum bandwidth guarantees, which can be composed hierarchically. Parley also supports service-centric weighted sharing of bandwidth in excess of these guarantees. Further, we show how to configure these policies so services can get low latencies even at high network load. We evaluate Parley on a multi-tiered oversubscribed network connecting 90 machines, each with a 10Gb/s network interface, and demonstrate that Parley is able to meet its goals. View details
    Cicada: Introducing Predictive Guarantees for Cloud Networks
    Katrina LaCurts
    Hari Balakrishnan
    Yoshio Turner
    6th USENIX Workshop on Hot Topics in Cloud Computing (HotCloud 14), USENIX Association (2014)
    Enforcing Network-Wide Policies in the Presence of Dynamic Middlebox Actions using FlowTags
    Seyed Kaveh Fayazbakhsh
    Luis Chang
    Vyas Sekar
    Minlan Yu
    Proceedings of the 11th USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI ’14), USENIX Association (2014), pp. 533-546
    Democratic Resolution of Resource Conflicts Between SDN Control Programs
    Alvin AuYoung
    Yadi Ma
    Sujata Banerjee
    Jeongkeun Lee
    Puneet Sharma
    Yoshio Turner
    Chen Liang
    CoNEXT '14 Proceedings of the 10th ACM International on Conference on emerging Networking Experiments and Technologies, ACM (2014), pp. 391-402
    The NIC Is the Hypervisor: Bare-Metal Guests in IaaS Clouds
    Jayaram Mudigonda
    Jose Renato Santos
    Yoshio Turner
    14th Workshop on Hot Topics in Operating Systems (HotOS-XiV), USENIX Association (2013)
    Corybantic: towards the modular composition of SDN control programs
    Alvin AuYoung
    Sujata Banerjee
    Lucian Popa
    Jeongkeun Lee
    Jayaram Mudigonda
    Puneet Sharma
    Yoshio Turner
    Proceedings of the Twelfth ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks (HotNets-XII), ACM (2013)
    FlowTags: Enforcing Network-Wide Policies in the Presence of Dynamic Middlebox Actions
    Seyed Kaveh Fayazbakhsh
    Vyas Sekar
    Minlan Yu
    Proc. ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Hot Topics in Software Defined Networking (HotSDN), ACM (2013)
    ElasticSwitch: practical work-conserving bandwidth guarantees for cloud computing
    Lucian Popa
    Praveen Yalagandula
    Sujata Banerjee
    Yoshio Turner
    Jose Renato Santos
    Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM 2013 conference, ACM, pp. 351-362
    TweeCards: Tweets Go Postal
    Mary Baker
    Ian Robinson
    TinyToCS, vol. 1 (2012)
    Report on the SIGCOMM 2011 conference
    John W. Byers
    Fadel Adib
    Jay Aikat
    Danai Chasaki
    Ming-Hung Chen
    Marshini Chetty
    Romain Fontugne
    Vijay Gabale
    László Gyarmati
    Katrina LaCurts
    Qi Liao
    Marc Mendonca
    Trang Cao Minh
    S. H. Shah Newaz
    Pawan Prakash
    Yan Shvartzshnaider
    Praveen Yalagandula
    Chun-Yu Yang
    Computer Communication Review, vol. 42 (2012), pp. 80-96
    What we talk about when we talk about cloud network performance
    Lucian Popa
    Computer Communication Review, vol. 42 (2012), pp. 44-48
    On the Security of Conference and Journal Submission Sites
    Eddie Kohler
    TinyToCS, vol. 1 (2012)
    NetLord: a scalable multi-tenant network architecture for virtualized datacenters
    Jayaram Mudigonda
    Praveen Yalagandula
    Bryan Stiekes
    Yanick Pouffary
    SIGCOMM (2011), pp. 62-73
    DevoFlow: scaling flow management for high-performance networks
    Andrew R. Curtis
    Jean Tourrilhes
    Praveen Yalagandula
    Puneet Sharma
    Sujata Banerjee
    SIGCOMM (2011), pp. 254-265
    Report on WREN 2009 -- workshop: research on enterprise networking
    Nathan Farrington
    Nikhil Handigol
    Christoph Mayer
    Kok-Kiong Yap
    Computer Communication Review, vol. 40 (2010), pp. 44-49
    Chimpp: a click-based programming and simulation environment for reconfigurable networking hardware
    Erik Rubow
    Rick McGeer
    Amin Vahdat
    ANCS (2010), pp. 36
    SPAIN: COTS Data-Center Ethernet for Multipathing over Arbitrary Topologies
    Jayaram Mudigonda
    Praveen Yalagandula
    Mohammad Al-Fares
    NSDI (2010), pp. 265-280
    DevoFlow: cost-effective flow management for high performance enterprise networks
    Jean Tourrilhes
    Praveen Yalagandula
    Puneet Sharma
    Andrew R. Curtis
    Sujata Banerjee
    HotNets (2010), pp. 1
    Operating System Support for NVM+DRAM Hybrid Main Memory
    Eduardo Argollo
    Mehul A. Shah
    Paolo Faraboschi
    HotOS (2009)
    Computer systems research at HP labs
    Jay J. Wylie
    Operating Systems Review, vol. 43 (2009), pp. 8-9
    WOWCS: the workshop on organizing workshops, conferences, and symposia for computer systems
    Operating Systems Review, vol. 43 (2009), pp. 106-107
    Fast switching of threads between cores
    Richard D. Strong
    Jayaram Mudigonda
    Nathan L. Binkert
    Dean M. Tullsen
    Operating Systems Review, vol. 43 (2009), pp. 35-45
    Using Asymmetric Single-ISA CMPs to Save Energy on Operating Systems
    Jayaram Mudigonda
    Nathan L. Binkert
    Vanish Talwar
    IEEE Micro, vol. 28 (2008), pp. 26-41
    Open issues in organizing computer systems conferences
    Tom Anderson
    Computer Communication Review, vol. 38 (2008), pp. 93-102
    Before and After WOWCS: A literature survey, A list of papers we wish had been submitted
    Tom Anderson
    WOWCS (2008)
    Looking Between the Street Lamps
    HotPower (2008)
    Auditing to Keep Online Storage Services Honest
    Mehul A. Shah
    Mary Baker
    Ram Swaminathan
    HotOS (2007)
    SC2D: an alternative to trace anonymization
    Martin F. Arlitt
    MineNet (2006), pp. 323-328
    Emergent (mis)behavior vs. complex software systems
    EuroSys (2006), pp. 293-304
    Pip: Detecting the Unexpected in Distributed Systems
    Patrick Reynolds
    Janet L. Wiener
    Mehul A. Shah
    Amin Vahdat
    NSDI (2006)
    WAP5: black-box performance debugging for wide-area systems
    Patrick Reynolds
    Janet L. Wiener
    Marcos Kawazoe Aguilera
    Amin Vahdat
    WWW (2006), pp. 347-356
    Operating Systems Should Support Business Change
    HotOS (2005)
    Predicting Short-Transfer Latency from TCP Arcana: A Trace-based Validation
    Martin F. Arlitt
    Balachander Krishnamurthy
    Internet Measurment Conference (2005), pp. 213-226
    Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA) over IP Problem Statement (RFC4297)
    A. Romanow
    T. Talpey
    S. Bailey
    IETF (2005)
    HTTP Header Field Registrations (RFC4229)
    M. Nottingham
    IETF (2005)
    2 P2P or Not 2 P2P?
    Mema Roussopoulos
    Mary Baker
    David S. H. Rosenthal
    Thomas J. Giuli
    IPTPS (2004), pp. 33-43
    Unveiling the transport
    Lawrence S. Brakmo
    David E. Lowell
    Dinesh Subhraveti
    Justin Moore
    Computer Communication Review, vol. 34 (2004), pp. 99-106
    Utilification
    Jaap Suermondt
    ACM SIGOPS European Workshop (2004), pp. 13
    Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields (RFC3864)
    G. Klyne
    M. Nottingham
    IETF (2004)
    2 P2P or Not 2 P2P?
    Mema Roussopoulos
    Mary Baker
    David S. H. Rosenthal
    Thomas J. Giuli
    IPTPS (2004), pp. 33-43
    Clarifying the fundamentals of HTTP
    Softw., Pract. Exper., vol. 34 (2004), pp. 103-134
    Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of Duplicate Transfer Detection in HTTP
    Yee-Man Chan
    Terence Kelly
    NSDI (2004), pp. 43-56
    Architecture and performance of server-directed transcoding
    Björn Knutsson
    Honghui Lu
    Bryan Hopkins
    ACM Trans. Internet Techn., vol. 3 (2003), pp. 392-424
    Performance debugging for distributed systems of black boxes
    Marcos Kawazoe Aguilera
    Janet L. Wiener
    Patrick Reynolds
    Athicha Muthitacharoen
    SOSP (2003), pp. 74-89
    TCP Offload Is a Dumb Idea Whose Time Has Come
    HotOS (2003), pp. 25-30
    Workshop on network-I/O convergence: experience, lessons, implications (NICELI)
    Vinay Aggarwal
    Olaf Maennel
    Allyn Romanow
    Computer Communication Review, vol. 33 (2003), pp. 75-80
    2 P2P or Not 2 P2P?
    Mema Roussopoulos
    Mary Baker
    David S. H. Rosenthal
    Thomas J. Giuli
    CoRR, vol. cs.NI/0311017 (2003)
    2 P2P or Not 2 P2P?
    Mema Roussopoulos
    Mary Baker
    David S. H. Rosenthal
    Thomas J. Giuli
    CoRR, vol. cs.NI/0311017 (2003)
    Aliasing on the world wide web: prevalence and performance implications
    Terence Kelly
    WWW (2002), pp. 281-292
    Clarifying the fundamentals of HTTP
    WWW (2002), pp. 25-36
    The VCDIFF Generic Differencing and Compression Data Format (RFC3284)
    D. Korn
    J. MacDonald
    K. Vo
    IETF (2002)
    Instance Digests in HTTP (RFC3230)
    A. Van Hoff
    IETF (2002)
    Delta encoding in HTTP (RFC3229)
    B. Krishnamurthy
    F. Douglis
    A. Feldmann
    Y. Goland
    A. van Hoff
    D. Hellerstein
    IETF (2002)
    Toward a Rigorous Data Type Model for HTTP
    HotOS (2001), pp. 176
    Rethinking the TCP Nagle algorithm
    Greg Minshall
    Computer Communication Review, vol. 31 (2001), pp. 6-20
    Server-directed transcoding
    Computer Communications, vol. 24 (2001), pp. 155-162
    Application performance pitfalls and TCP's Nagle algorithm
    Greg Minshall
    Yasushi Saito
    Ben Verghese
    SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review, vol. 27 (2000), pp. 36-44
    Pulse-Per-Second API for UNIX-like Operating Systems, Version 1.0 (RFC2783)
    D. Mills
    J. Brittenson
    J. Stone
    U. Windl
    IETF (2000)
    Brittle Metrics in Operating Systems Research
    Workshop on Hot Topics in Operating Systems (1999), pp. 90-95
    Resource Containers: A New Facility for Resource Management in Server Systems
    Gaurav Banga
    Peter Druschel
    OSDI (1999), pp. 45-58
    Y10K and Beyond (RFC 2550)
    Steve Glassman
    Mark Manasse
    IETF (1999)
    Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1 (RFC2616)
    R. Fielding
    J. Gettys
    H. Frystyk
    L. Masinter
    P. Leach
    T. Berners-Lee
    IETF (1999)
    Key Differences Between HTTP/1.0 and HTTP/1.1
    Balachander Krishnamurthy
    David M. Kristol
    Computer Networks, vol. 31 (1999), pp. 1737-1751
    A Scalable and Explicit Event Delivery Mechanism for UNIX
    Gaurav Banga
    Peter Druschel
    USENIX Annual Technical Conference, General Track (1999), pp. 253-265
    Better operating system features for faster network servers
    Gaurav Banga
    Peter Druschel
    SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review, vol. 26 (1998), pp. 23-30
    Errata for 'Potential benefits of delta encoding and data compression for HTTP'
    Fred Douglis
    Anja Feldmann
    Balachander Krishnamurthy
    Computer Communication Review, vol. 28 (1998), pp. 51-55
    Scalable kernel performance for Internet servers under realistic loads
    Gaurav Banga
    Proc. 1998 USENIX Annual Technical Conf, USENIX, pp. 1-12
    Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1 (RFC2068)
    R. Fielding
    J. Gettys
    H. Frystyk
    T. Berners-Lee
    IETF (1997)
    Rate of Change and other Metrics: a Live Study of the World Wide Web
    Fred Douglis
    Anja Feldmann
    Balachander Krishnamurthy
    USENIX Symposium on Internet Technologies and Systems (1997)
    Exploring the Bounds of Web Latency Reduction from Caching and Prefetching
    Tom M. Kroeger
    Darrell D. E. Long
    USENIX Symposium on Internet Technologies and Systems (1997)
    Eliminating Receive Livelock in an Interrupt-Driven Kemel
    K. K. Ramakrishnan:
    ACM Trans. Comput. Syst., vol. 15 (1997), pp. 217-252
    Simple Hit-Metering and Usage-Limiting for HTTP (RFC2227)
    P. Leach
    IETF (1997)
    Use and Interpretation of HTTP Version Numbers (RFC2145)
    R. Fielding
    J. Gettys
    H. Frystyk
    IETF (1997)
    Potential Benefits of Delta Encoding and Data Compression for HTTP
    Fred Douglis
    Anja Feldmann
    Balachander Krishnamurthy
    SIGCOMM (1997), pp. 181-194
    Path MTU Discovery for IP version 6 (RFC1981)
    J. McCann
    S. Deering
    IETF (1996)
    Hinted caching in the Web
    ACM SIGOPS European Workshop (1996), pp. 103-108
    Eliminating Receive Livelock in an Interrupt-driven Kernel
    K. K. Ramakrishnan
    USENIX Annual Technical Conference (1996), pp. 99-112
    The Case for Persistent-Connection HTTP
    SIGCOMM (1995), pp. 299-313
    Improving HTTP Latency
    Venkata N. Padmanabhan
    Computer Networks and ISDN Systems, vol. 28 (1995), pp. 25-35
    Performance Implications of Multiple Pointer Sizes
    Joel F. Bartlett
    Robert N. Mayo
    Amitabh Srivastava
    USENIX Winter (1995), pp. 187-200
    A Better Update Policy
    USENIX Summer (1994), pp. 99-111
    Recovery in Spritely NFS
    Computing Systems, vol. 7 (1994), pp. 201-262
    Big Memories on the Desktop
    Workshop on Workstation Operating Systems (1993), pp. 110-115
    Network Locality at the Scale of Processes
    ACM Trans. Comput. Syst., vol. 10 (1992), pp. 81-109
    Observing TCP Dynamics in Real Networks
    SIGCOMM (1992), pp. 305-317
    Network Locality at the Scale of Processes
    SIGCOMM (1991), pp. 273-284
    The Effect of Context Switches on Cache Performance
    Anita Borg
    ASPLOS (1991), pp. 75-84
    Efficient Use of Workstations for Passive Monitoring of Local Area Networks
    SIGCOMM (1990), pp. 253-263
    Path MTU discovery (RFC1191)
    S.E. Deering
    IETF (1990)
    Spritely NFS: Experiments with Cache-Consistency Protocols
    V. Srinivasan
    SOSP (1989), pp. 45-57
    Measured capacity of an Ethernet: myths and reality
    David R. Boggs
    Christopher A. Kent
    SIGCOMM (1988), pp. 222-234
    IP MTU discovery options (RFC1063)
    C.A. Kent
    C. Partridge
    K. McCloghrie
    IETF (1988)
    The Packet Filter: An Efficient Mechanism for User-level Network Code
    Richard F. Rashid
    Michael J. Accetta
    SOSP (1987), pp. 39-51
    Fragmentation considered harmful
    Christopher A. Kent
    Proc. SIGCOMM, ACM (1987), pp. 390-401
    Internet Standard Subnetting Procedure (RFC950)
    J. Postel
    IETF (1985)
    Internet subnets (RFC917)
    IETF (1984)
    Broadcasting Internet Datagrams (RFC919)
    IETF (1984)
    A Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RFC903)
    R. Finlayson
    T. Mann
    M. Theimer
    IETF (1984)
    Broadcasting Internet datagrams in the presence of subnets (RFC922)
    IETF (1984)
    Representing Information About Files
    ICDCS (1984), pp. 432-439