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Elizabeth Churchill

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    Preview abstract This short paper describes how to adapt user experience research methods for artificial intelligence (AI)-driven applications. Presently, there is a dearth of guidance for conducting UX research on AI-driven experiences. We describe what makes this class of experiences unique, propose a preliminary foundational framework to categorize AI-driven experiences, and within the framework we show an example of methodological adaptations via a case study. View details
    Towards gender-equitable privacy and security in South Asia
    Amna Batool
    David Nemer
    Nithya Sambasivan
    Nova Ahmed
    Sane Gaytán
    Tara Matthews
    IEEE Security & Privacy (2019)
    Preview abstract 2017 marked the year when half the world went online. But women remain under-represented on the Internet. Nearly two-thirds of countries have more men than women online [1]. South Asia has one of the largest gender gaps when it comes to mobile and Internet access: 29% of users from India are women and they are 26% less likely than South Asian men to own a phone [2]. A large and growing population of nearly 760 million women live in India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan [3-5]. As a result a growing affordability and ease of access, women will comprise a significant proportion of new Internet users. As the gaps close online, there is enormous potential for security and privacy technologies to turn towards gender-equitable designs and enable women to equitably participate online. View details
    Preview abstract South Asia faces one of the largest gender gaps online globally, and online safety is one of the main barriers to gender-equitable Internet access [GSMA, 2015]. To better understand the gendered risks and coping practices online in South Asia, we present a qualitative study of the online abuse experiences and coping practices of 199 people who identified as women and 6 NGO staff from India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, using a feminist analysis. We found that a majority of our participants regularly contended with online abuse, experiencing three major abuse types: cyberstalking, impersonation, and personal content leakages. Consequences of abuse included emotional harm, reputation damage, and physical and sexual violence. Participants coped through informal channels rather than through technological protections or law enforcement. Altogether, our findings point to opportunities for designs, policies, and algorithms to improve women's safety online in South Asia. View details
    “Privacy is not for me, it’s for those rich women”: Performative Privacy Practices on Mobile Phones by Women in South Asia
    Amna Batool
    David Nemer
    Nithya Sambasivan
    Nova Ahmed
    Sane Gaytán
    Tara Matthews
    Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security (SOUPS) 2018 (2018)
    Preview abstract Women in South Asia own fewer personal devices like laptops and phones than women elsewhere in the world. Further, cultural expectations influence how mobile phones are shared with and digital activities are scrutinized by family members. In this paper, we report on a qualitative study conducted in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh about how women perceive, manage, and control their personal privacy on shared phones. We describe a set of five performative practices our participants employed to maintain individuality and privacy, despite frequent borrowing and monitoring of their devices by family and social relations. These practices involved management of phone and app locks, content deletion, technology avoidance, and use of private modes. We present design opportunities for maintaining privacy on shared devices that are mindful of the social norms and values in the South Asian countries studied, including to improve discovery of privacy controls, offer content hiding, and provide algorithmic understanding of multiple-user use cases. Our suggestions have implications for enhancing the agency of user populations whose social norms shape their phone use. View details
    Stories from survivors: Privacy & security practices when coping with intimate partner abuse
    Tara Matthews
    Jill Palzkill Woelfer
    Martin Shelton
    Cori Manthorne
    CHI '17 Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM, New York, NY, USA (2017), pp. 2189-2201
    Preview abstract We present a qualitative study of the digital privacy and security motivations, practices, and challenges of survivors of intimate partner abuse (IPA). This paper provides a framework for organizing survivors' technology practices and challenges into three phases: physical control, escape, and life apart. This three-phase framework combines technology practices with three phases of abuse to provide an empirically sound method for technology creators to consider how survivors of IPA can leverage new and existing technologies. Overall, our results suggest that the usability of and control over privacy and security functions should be or continue to be high priorities for technology creators seeking ways to better support survivors of IPA. View details
    Preview abstract Recognizing how intimate partner abuse’s three phases—physical control, escape from abuser, and life apart—affect survivors’ technology use can help technology creators better understand and support this population’s digital security and privacy needs. View details
    The Moving Context Kit: Designing for Context Shifts in Multi-Device Experiences
    Jeffrey Nichols
    Julia Haines
    Michael Gilbert
    Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Designing Interactive Systems, ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp. 309-320
    Preview abstract Multi-device product designers need tools to better address ecologically valid constraints in naturalistic settings early in their design process. To address this need, we created a reusable design kit of scenarios, “hint” cards, and a framework that codifies insights from prior work and our own field study. We named the kit the Moving Context Kit, or McKit for short, because it helps designers focus on context shifts that we found to be highly influential in everyday multi-device use. Specifically, we distilled the following findings from our field study in the McKit: (1) devices are typically specialized into one of six roles during parallel use—notifier, broadcaster, collector, gamer, remote, and hub, and (2) device roles are influenced by context shifts between private and shared situations. Through a workshop, we validated that the McKit enables designers to engage with complex user needs, situations, and relationships when incorporating novel multi-device techniques into the products they envision. View details
    Understanding the Challenges of Designing and Developing Multi-Device Experiences
    Jeffrey Nichols
    DIS '16 Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on Designing Interactive Systems
    Preview abstract As the number of computing devices available to users continues to grow, personal computing increasingly involves using multiple devices together. However, support for multi-device interactions has fallen behind users' desire to leverage the diverse capabilities of the devices that surround them. In this paper, we report on an interview study of 29 designers and developers in which we investigate the barriers to creating useful, usable, and delightful multi-device experiences. We uncovered three key challenges: 1) the difficulty in designing the interactions between devices, 2) the complexity of adapting interfaces to different platform UI standards, and 3) the lack of tools and methods for testing multi-device user experiences. We discuss the technological and business factors behind these challenges and potential ways to lower the barriers they impose. View details
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