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Brennan Saeta

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    Preview abstract We present the design of a new large scale orchestration layer for accelerators. Our system, Pathways, is explicitly designed to enable exploration of new systems and ML research ideas, while retaining state of the art performance for current models. Pathways uses a sharded dataflow graph of asynchronous operators that consume and produce futures, and efficiently gang-schedules heterogeneous parallel computations on thousands of accelerators while coordinating data transfers over their dedicated interconnects. Pathways makes use of a novel asynchronous distributed dataflow design that lets the control plane execute in parallel despite dependencies in the data plane. This design, with careful engineering, allows Pathways to adopt a single-controller model that makes it easier to express complex new parallelism patterns. We demonstrate that Pathways can achieve performance parity (~100% accelerator utilization) with state-of-the-art systems when running SPMD computations over 2048 TPUs, while also delivering throughput comparable to the SPMD case for Transformer models that are pipelined across 16 stages, or sharded across two islands of accelerators connected over a data center network. View details
    Mutable Value Semantics
    Dimitri Racordon
    Dave Abrahams
    Journal of Object Technology, vol. 21 (2022)
    Preview abstract Mutable value semantics is a programming discipline that upholds the independence of values to support local reasoning. In the discipline’s strictest form, references become second-class citizens: they are only created implicitly, at function boundaries, and cannot be stored in variables or object fields. Hence, variables can never share mutable state. Unlike pure functional programming, however, mutable value semantics allows part-wise in-place mutation, thereby eliminating the memory traffic usually associated with functional updates of immutable data. This paper presents implementation strategies for compiling programs with mutable value semantics into efficient native code. We study Swift, a programming language based on that discipline, through the lens of a core language that strips some of Swift’s features to focus on the semantics of its value types. The strategies that we introduce leverage the inherent properties of mutable value semantics to unlock aggressive optimizations. Fixed-size values are allocated on the stack, thereby enabling numerous off-the-shelf compiler optimizations, while dynamically sized containers use copy-on-write to mitigate copying costs. View details
    PaLM: Scaling Language Modeling with Pathways
    Sharan Narang
    Jacob Devlin
    Maarten Bosma
    Hyung Won Chung
    Sebastian Gehrmann
    Parker Schuh
    Sasha Tsvyashchenko
    Abhishek Rao
    Yi Tay
    Noam Shazeer
    Nan Du
    Reiner Pope
    James Bradbury
    Guy Gur-Ari
    Toju Duke
    Henryk Michalewski
    Xavier Garcia
    Liam Fedus
    David Luan
    Barret Zoph
    Ryan Sepassi
    David Dohan
    Shivani Agrawal
    Mark Omernick
    Marie Pellat
    Aitor Lewkowycz
    Erica Moreira
    Rewon Child
    Oleksandr Polozov
    Zongwei Zhou
    Michele Catasta
    Jason Wei
    arxiv:2204.02311 (2022)
    Preview abstract Large language models have been shown to achieve remarkable performance across a variety of natural language tasks using few-shot learning, which drastically reduces the number of task-specific training examples needed to adapt the model to a particular application. To further our understanding of the impact of scale on few-shot learning, we trained a 540-billion parameter, densely activated, Transformer language model, which we call Pathways Language Model PaLM. We trained PaLM on 6144 TPU v4 chips using Pathways, a new ML system which enables highly efficient training across multiple TPU Pods. We demonstrate continued benefits of scaling by achieving state-of-the-art few-shot learning results on hundreds of language understanding and generation benchmarks. On a number of these tasks, PaLM 540B achieves breakthrough performance, outperforming the finetuned state-of-the-art on a suite of multi-step reasoning tasks, and outperforming average human performance on the recently released BIG-bench benchmark. A significant number of BIG-bench tasks showed discontinuous improvements from model scale, meaning that performance steeply increased as we scaled to our largest model. PaLM also has strong capabilities in multilingual tasks and source code generation, which we demonstrate on a wide array of benchmarks. We additionally provide a comprehensive analysis on bias and toxicity, and study the extent of training data memorization with respect to model scale. Finally, we discuss the ethical considerations related to large language models and discuss potential mitigation strategies. View details
    LazyTensor: combining eager execution with domain-specific compilers
    Alex Suhan
    Davide Libenzi
    Ailing Zhang
    Parker Schuh
    Jie Young Sohn
    Google (2021)
    Preview abstract Domain-specific optimizing compilers have demonstrated significant performance and portability benefits, but require programs to be represented in their specialized IRs. Existing frontends to these compilers suffer from the "language subset problem" where some host language features are unsupported in the subset of the user's program that interacts with the domain-specific compiler. By contrast, define-by-run ML frameworks-colloquially called "eager" mode-are popular due to their ease of use and expressivity, where the full power of the host programming language can be used. LazyTensor is a technique to target domain specific compilers without sacrificing define-by-run ergonomics. Initially developed to support PyTorch on Cloud TPUs, the technique, along with a substantially shared implementation, has been used by Swift for TensorFlow across CPUs, GPUs, and TPUs, demonstrating the generality of the approach across (1) Tensor implementations, (2) hardware accelerators, and (3) programming languages. View details
    Swift for TensorFlow: A portable, flexible platform for deep learning
    Marc Rasi
    Brad Larson
    Xihui Wu
    Parker Schuh
    Saleem Abdulrasool
    Aleksandr Efremov
    Dave Abrahams
    Chris Lattner
    Richard Wei
    MLSys (2021)
    Preview abstract Swift for TensorFlow is a deep learning platform that scales from mobile devices to clusters of hardware accelerators in data centers. It combines a language-integrated automatic differentiation system and multiple Tensor implementations within a modern ahead-of-time compiled language oriented around mutable value semantics. The resulting platform has been validated through use in over 30 deep learning models and has been employed across data center and mobile applications. View details
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