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Entanglement area law for 1D gauge theories and bosonic systems

  • Nilin Abrahamsen
  • Yuan Su
  • Yu Tong
  • Nathan Wiebe
arXiv:2203.16012 (2022)


We prove an entanglement area law for a class of 1D quantum systems involving infinite-dimensional local Hilbert spaces. This class of quantum systems include bosonic models such as the Hubbard-Holstein model, and both U(1) and SU(2) lattice gauge theories in one spatial dimension. Our proof relies on new results concerning the robustness of the ground state and spectral gap to the truncation of Hilbert space, applied within the approximate ground state projector (AGSP) framework from previous work. In establishing this area law, we develop a system-size independent bound on the expectation value of local observables for Hamiltonians without translation symmetry, which may be of separate interest. Our result provides theoretical justification for using tensor network methods to study the ground state properties of quantum systems with infinite local degrees of freedom.

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