Lucas is a research scientist and lead of PAIR (People and AI Research). He works on visualisation, explainability and control of machine learning systems, and specifically language models. His work explores how people can productively and fairly benefit from machine learning systems. Previously, he was Chief Scientist at Jigsaw where he founded engineering and research. He has worked on a range of topics including security, formal logics, machine learning, and data visualization. For example he worked on uProxy & Outline, Project Shield, DigitalAttackMap; Syria Defection Tracker, unfiltered.news, Conversation AI and Perspective API. Before Google, Lucas completed his PhD and worked at the University of Edinburgh on the automation of mathematical reasoning and graphical languages mostly applied to quantum information. He also helped run a non-profit working towards more rational and informed discussion and decision making, and was a co-founder of TheoryMine - a playful take on automating mathematical discovery.